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Μή, φίλα ψυχά, βίον ἀθάνατον σπεῦδε, τὰν δ' ἔμπρακτον ἄντλει μαχανάν → Oh! my soul do not aspire to eternal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible
Pindar, Pythian, 3.61f.

English > Greek (Woodhouse)

Ξενοφῶν, Ξενοφῶντος, ὁ.

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

Xĕnŏphon: ontis, m., = Ξενοφῶν,
I a celebrated Greek historian and philosopher, born B. C. 445, a pupil of Socrates and a leader of the Greeks in the army of Cyrus the younger, Cic. Div. 1, 25, 52; id. Tusc. 5, 34, 99; id. Sen. 9, 30; id. Leg. 2, 22, 56; Varr. R. R. 1, 1, 8.—Hence, Xĕnŏphontēus or -īus, a, um, adj., = Ξενοφόντειος, of or belonging to Xenophon, Xenophontian: genus sermonis, Cic. Brut. 35, 132: Hercules, i. e. mentioned in his writings, id. Fam. 5, 12, 3.

Latin > French (Gaffiot 2016)

Xĕnŏphōn,¹² ontis, m. (Ξενοφῶν),
1 Xénophon [disciple de Socrate, à la fois philosophe, historien et général des Athéniens] : Cic. Div. 1, 52 ; Tusc. 5, 99
2 médecin de Claude : Tac. Ann. 12, 61 ; 67.

Latin > German (Georges)

Xenophōn, ōntis, m. (Ξενοφῶν), aus Athen, Schüler des Sokrates, ausgezeichnet als Geschichtschreiber, Philosoph u. Feldherr, Cic. de div. 1, 52; Tusc. 5, 99: Xenophon Socraticus, Varro r.r. 1, 1, 8. Nep. Ages. 1, 1: Plur., griech. Akk. Xenophontas, Sen. de tranqu. anim. 7, 5. – Dav. Xenophōntēus u. -tīus, a, um ([Ξενοφώντειος]), xenophontëisch, Xenophonteum genus sermonis, Cic. Brut. 132: Hercules Xenophontius ille, bei Xenophon erwähnt, Cic. ep. 5, 12, 3.

Wikipedia EN

Xenophon of Athens (/ˈzɛnəfən, -ˌfɒn/; Greek: Ξενοφῶν, Ancient Greek:, Xenophōn; c. 431 BC – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, philosopher and soldier. Xenophon became commander of the Ten Thousand at about 30, with noted military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge saying of him, “the centuries since have devised nothing to surpass the genius of this warrior.” He established the precedent for many logistical operations and was among the first to use flanking maneuvers and feints. A student of Socrates, Xenophon is known for his writings and recording the history of his time (late-5th and early-4th centuries BC), in such works as Anabasis and Hellenica, which covered the final seven years and the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), thus representing a thematic continuation of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.

As one of the Ten Thousand (Greek mercenaries), Xenophon participated in Cyrus the Younger's failed campaign to claim the Persian throne from his brother Artaxerxes II of Persia. He recounted the events in Anabasis, his most notable history. Like Plato, Xenophon is an authority on Socrates, about whom he wrote several books of dialogues (the Memorabilia) and an Apology of Socrates to the Jury, which recounts the philosopher's trial in 399 BC.

List of works

Xenophon’s entire classical corpus is extant. The following list of his works exhibits the extensive breadth of genres in which Xenophon wrote.

Historical and biographical works

  • Anabasis (also: The Persian Expedition or The March Up Country or The Expedition of Cyrus): Provides an early life biography of Xenophon. Anabasis was used as a field guide by Alexander the Great during the early phases of his expedition into the Achaemenid Empire.
  • Cyropaedia (also: The Education of Cyrus): Sometimes seen as the archetype of the European "mirror of princes" genre.
  • Hellenica: His Hellenica is a major primary source for events in Greece from 411 to 362 BC, and is considered to be the continuation of the History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides, going so far as to begin with the phrase "Following these events...". The Hellenica recounts the last seven years of the Peloponnesian war, as well as its aftermath.
  • Agesilaus: The biography of Agesilaus II, king of Sparta and companion of Xenophon.
  • Polity of the Lacedaemonians: Xenophon’s history and description of the Spartan government and institutions.

Socratic works and dialogues

Defences of Socrates

  • Memorabilia: Collection of Socratic dialogues serving as a defense of Socrates outside of court.
  • Apology: Xenophon's defence of Socrates in court.

Other Socratic dialogues

  • Oeconomicus: Socratic dialogue of a different sort, pertaining to household management.
  • Symposium: Symposic literature in which Socrates and his companions discuss what they take pride in with respect to themselves.


Short treatises

These works were probably written by Xenophon when he was living in Scillus. His days were likely spent in relative leisure here, and he wrote these treatises about the sorts of activities he spent time on.

  • On Horsemanship: Treatise on how to break, train, and care for horses.
  • Hipparchicus (Hipparchikos): Outlines the duties of a cavalry officer.
  • Cynegeticus (Hunting with Dogs): Treatise on the proper methods of hunting with dogs and the advantages of hunting.
  • Ways and Means: Describes how Athens should deal with financial and economic crisis.



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