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Μή, φίλα ψυχά, βίον ἀθάνατον σπεῦδε, τὰν δ' ἔμπρακτον ἄντλει μαχανάν → Oh! my soul do not aspire to eternal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible
Pindar, Pythian, 3.61f.

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

ad: prep. with acc. (from the fourth century after Christ written also at; Etrusc. suf. -a; Osc. az; Umbr. and Old Lat. ar, as in Eug. Tab., in S. C. de Bacch., as arveho for adveho; arfuerunt, arfuisse, for adfuerunt, etc.; arbiter for adbiter; so, ar me advenias, Plant. Truc. 2, 2, 17; cf. Prisc. 559 P.; Vel. Long. 2232 P.; Fabretti, Glos. Ital. col. 5) [cf. Sanscr. adhi; Goth. and Eng. at; Celt. pref. ar, as armor, i.e. ad mare; Rom. a].
I As antith. to ab (as in to ex), in a progressive order of relation, ad denotes, first, the direction toward an object; then the reaching of or attaining to it; and finally, the being at or near it.
   A In space.
   1    Direction toward, to, toward, and first,
   a Horizontally: fugere ad puppim colles campique videntur, the hills and fields appear to fly toward the ship, Lucr. 4, 390: meridie umbrae cadunt ad septentrionem, ortu vero ad occasum, to or toward the north and west, Plin. 2, 13, and so often of the geog. position of a place in reference to the points of compass, with the verbs jacere, vergere, spectare, etc.: Asia jacet ad meridiem et austrum, Europa ad septentriones et aquiionem, Varr. L. L. 5, § 31 Müll.; and in Plin. very freq.: Creta ad austrum ... ad septentrionem versa, 4, 20: ad Atticam vergente, 4, 21 al.—Also trop.: animus alius ad alia vitia propensior, Cic. Tusc. 4, 37, 81.—
   b In a direction upwards (esp. in the poets, very freq.): manusque sursum ad caelum sustulit, Naev. ap. Non. 116, 30 (B. Pun. p. 13, ed. Vahl.): manus ad caeli templa tendebam lacrimans, Enn. ap. Cic. Div. 1, 20, 40 (Ann. v. 50 ed. Vahl.); cf.: duplices tendens ad sidera palmas, Verg. A. 1, 93: molem ex profundo saxeam ad caelum vomit, Att. ap. Prisc. 1325 P.: clamor ad caelum volvendus, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 104 Müll. (Ann. v. 520 ed. Vahl.) (cf. with this: tollitur in caelum clamor, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1, or Ann. v. 422): ad caelumque ferat flammai fulgura rursum, of Aetna, Lucr. 1, 725; cf. id. 2, 191; 2, 325: sidera sola micant; ad quae sua bracchia tendens, etc., Ov. M. 7, 188: altitudo pertingit ad caelum, Vulg. Dan. 4, 17.—
   c Also in the direction downwards (for the usu. in): tardiore semper ad terras omnium quae geruntur in caelo effectu cadente quam visu, Plin. 2, 97, 99, § 216.
   2    The point or goal at which any thing arrives.
   a Without reference to the space traversed in passing, to, toward (the most common use of this prep.): cum stupro redire ad suos popularīs, Naev. ap. Fest. p. 317 Müll. (B. Pun. p. 14 ed. Vahl.): ut ex tam alto dignitatis gradu ad superos videatur potius quam ad inferos pervenisse, Cic. Lael. 3, 12: ad terras decidat aether, Lucan. 2, 58. —Hence,
   (a)    With verbs which designate going, coming, moving, bearing, bringing near, adapting, taking, receiving, calling, exciting, admonishing, etc., when the verb is compounded with ad the prep. is not always repeated, but the constr. with the dat. or acc. employed; cf. Rudd. II. pp. 154, 175 n. (In the ante-class. per., and even in Cic., ad is generally repeated with most verbs, as, ad eos accedit, Cic. Sex. Rosc. 8: ad Sullam adire, id. ib. 25: ad se adferre, id. Verr. 4, 50: reticulum ad narīs sibi admovebat, id. ib. 5, 27: ad laborem adhortantur, id. de Sen. 14: T. Vectium ad se arcessit, id. Verr. 5, 114; but the poets of the Aug. per., and the historians, esp. Tac., prefer the dative; also, when the compound verb contains merely the idea of approach, the constr. with ad and the acc. is employed; but when it designates increase, that with the dat. is more usual: accedit ad urbem, he approaches the city; but, accedit provinciae, it is added to the province.)—
   (b)    Ad me, te, se, for domum meam, tuam, suam (in Plaut. and Ter. very freq.): oratus sum venire ad te huc, Plaut. Mil. 5, 1, 12: spectatores plaudite atque ite ad vos comissatum, id. Stich. fin.: eamus ad me, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 64: ancillas traduce huc ad vos, id. Heaut. 4, 4, 22: transeundumst tibi ad Menedemum, id. 4, 4, 17: intro nos vocat ad sese, tenet intus apud se, Lucil. ap. Charis. p. 86 P.: te oro, ut ad me Vibonem statim venias, Cic. Att. 3, 3; 16, 10 al.—
   (g)    Ad, with the name of a deity in the gen., is elliptical for ad templum or aedem (cf.: Thespiadas, quae ad aedem Felicitatis sunt, Cic. Verr. 4, 4; id. Phil. 2, 35: in aedem Veneris, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 120; in aedem Concordiae, Cic. Cat. 3, 9, 21; 2, 6, 12): ad Dianae, to the temple of, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 43: ad Opis, Cic. Att. 8, 1, 14: ad Castoris, id. Quint. 17: ad Juturnae, id. Clu. 101: ad Vestae, Hor. S. 1, 9, 35 al.: cf. Rudd. II. p. 41, n. 4, and p. 334.—
   (d)    With verbs which denote a giving, sending, informing, submitting, etc., it is used for the simple dat. (Rudd. II. p. 175): litteras dare ad aliquem, to send or write one a letter; and: litteras dare alicui, to give a letter to one; hence Cic. never says, like Caesar and Sall., alicui scribere, which strictly means, to write for one (as a receipt, etc.), but always mittere, scribere, perscribere ad aliquem: postea ad pistores dabo, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 119: praecipe quae ad patrem vis nuntiari, id. Capt. 2, 2, 109: in servitutem pauperem ad divitem dare, Ter. Ph. 4, 3, 48: nam ad me Publ. Valerius scripsit, Cic. Fam. 14, 2 med.: de meis rebus ad Lollium perscripsi, id. ib. 5, 3: velim domum ad te scribas, ut mihi tui libri pateant, id. Att. 4, 14; cf. id. ib. 4, 16: ad primam (sc. epistulam) tibi hoc scribo, in answer to your first, id. ib. 3, 15, 2: ad Q. Fulvium Cons. Hirpini et Lucani dediderunt sese, Liv. 27, 15, 1; cf. id. 28, 22, 5.—Hence the phrase: mittere or scribere librum ad aliquem, to dedicate a book to one (Greek, προσφωνεῖν): has res ad te scriptas, Luci, misimus, Aeli, Lucil. Sat. 1, ap. Auct. Her. 4, 12: quae institueram, ad te mittam, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5: ego interea admonitu tuo perfeci sane argutulos libros ad Varronem; and soon after: mihi explices velim, maneasne in sententia, ut mittam ad eum quae scripsi, Cic. Att. 13, 18; cf. ib. 16; Plin. 1, 19.—So in titles of books: M. Tullii Ciceronis ad Marcum Brutum Orator; M. T. Cic. ad Q. Fratrem Dialogi tres de Oratore, etc.—In the titles of odes and epigrams ad aliquem signifies to, addressed to.—(ε) With names of towns after verbs of motion, ad is used in answer to the question Whither? instead of the simple acc.; but commonly with this difference, that ad denotes to the vicinity of, the neighborhood of: miles ad Capuam profectus sum, quintoque anno post ad Tarentum, Cic. de Sen. 4, 10; id. Fam. 3, 81: ad Veios, Liv. 5, 19; 14, 18; cf. Caes. B. G. 1, 7; id. B. C. 3, 40 al.—Ad is regularly used when the proper name has an appellative in apposition to it: ad Cirtam oppidum iter constituunt, Sall. J. 81, 2; so Curt. 3, 1, 22; 4, 9, 9; or when it is joined with usque, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 34, § 87; id. Deiot, 7, 19.— (When an adjective is added, the simple acc. is used poet., as well as with ad: magnum iter ad doctas proficisci cogor Athenas, Prop. 3, 21, 1; the simple acc., Ov. H. 2, 83: doctas jam nunc eat, inquit, Athenas).—(ζ) With verbs which imply a hostile movement toward, or protection in respect to any thing, against = adversus: nonne ad senem aliquam fabricam fingit? Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 34: Lernaeas pugnet ad hydras, Prop. 3, 19, 9: neque quo pacto fallam, nec quem dolum ad eum aut machinam commoliar, old poet in Cic. N. D. 3, 29, 73: Belgarum copias ad se venire vidit, Caes. B. G. 2, 5; 7, 70: ipse ad hostem vehitur, Nep. Dat. 4, 5; id. Dion. 5, 4: Romulus ad regem impetus facit (a phrase in which in is commonly found), Liv. 1, 5, 7, and 44, 3, 10: aliquem ad hostem ducere, Tac. A. 2, 52: clipeos ad tela protecti obiciunt, Verg. A. 2, 443: munio me ad haec tempora, Cic. Fam. 9, 18: ad hos omnes casus provisa erant praesidia, Caes. B. G. 7, 65; 7, 41; so with nouns: medicamentum ad aquam intercutem, Cic. Off. 3, 24: remedium ad tertianam, Petr. Sat. 18: munimen ad imbrīs, Verg. G. 2, 352: farina cum melle ad tussim siccam efficasissima est, Plin. 20, 22, 89, § 243: ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces, Liv. 1, 9; 1, 19 (in these two passages ad may have the force of apud, Hand).—(η) The repetition of ad to denote the direction to a place and to a person present in it is rare: nunc tu abi ad forum ad herum, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 100; cf.: vocatis classico ad concilium militibus ad tribunos, Liv. 5 47.—(The distinction between ad and in is given by Diom. 409 P., thus: in forum ire est in ipsum forum intrare; ad forum autem ire, in locum foro proximum; ut in tribunal et ad tribunal venire non unum est; quia ad tribunal venit litigator, in tribunal vero praetor aut judex; cf. also Sen. Ep. 73, 14, deus ad homines venit, immo, quod propius est, in homines venit.)—
   b The terminus, with ref. to the space traversed, to, even to, with or without usque, Quint. 10, 7, 16: ingurgitavit usque ad imum gutturem, Naev. ap. Non. 207, 20 (Rib. Com. Rel. p. 30): dictator pervehitur usque ad oppidum, Naev. ap. Varr. L. L. 5, § 153 Müll. (B. Pun. p. 16 ed. Vahl.): via pejor ad usque Baii moenia, Hor. S. 1, 5, 96; 1, 1, 97: rigidum permanat frigus ad ossa, Lucr. 1, 355; 1, 969: cum sudor ad imos Manaret talos, Hor. S. 1, 9, 10: ut quantum posset, agmen ad mare extenderet, Curt. 3, 9, 10: laeva pars ad pectus est nuda, id. 6, 5, 27 al.—Hence the Plinian expression, petere aliquid (usque) ad aliquem, to seek something everywhere, even with one: ut ad Aethiopas usque peteretur, Plin. 36, 6, 9, § 51 (where Jan now reads ab Aethiopia); so, vestīs ad Seras peti, id. 12, 1, 1.—Trop.: si quid poscam, usque ad ravim poscam, Plaut. Aul. 2, 5, 10: deverberāsse usque ad necem, Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 13; without usque: hic ad incitas redactus, Plaut. Trin. 2, 4, 136; 4, 2, 52; id. Poen. 4, 2, 85; illud ad incitas cum redit atque internecionem, Lucil. ap. Non. 123, 20: virgis ad necem caedi, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 29, § 70; so Hor. S. 1, 2, 42; Liv. 24, 38, 9; Tac. A. 11, 37; Suet. Ner. 26; id. Dom. 8 al.
   3    Nearness or proximity in gen. = apud, near to, by, at, close by (in anteclass. per. very freq.; not rare later, esp. in the historians): pendent peniculamenta unum ad quemque pedum, trains are suspended at each foot, Enn. ap. Non. 149, 33 (Ann. v. 363 ed. Vahl.): ut in servitute hic ad suum maneat patrem, Plaut. Capt. prol. 49; cf. id. ib. 2, 3, 98; 3, 5, 41: sol quasi flagitator astat usque ad ostium, stands like a creditor continually at the door, id. Most. 3, 2, 81 (cf. with same force, Att. ap. Non. 522, 25; apud ipsum astas): ad forīs adsistere, Cic. Verr. 1, 66; id. Arch. 24: astiterunt ad januam, Vulg. Act. 10, 17: non adest ad exercitum, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 6; cf. ib. prol. 133: aderant ad spectaculum istud, Vulg. Luc. 23, 48: has (testas) e fenestris in caput Deiciunt, qui prope ad ostium adspiraverunt, Lucil. ap. Non. 288, 31: et nec opinanti Mors ad caput adstitit, Lucr. 3, 959: quod Romanis ad manum domi supplementum esset, at hand, Liv. 9, 19, 6: haec arma habere ad manum, Quint. 12, 5, 1: dominum esse ad villam, Cic. Sull. 20; so id. Verr. 2, 21: errantem ad flumina, Verg. E. 6, 64; Tib. 1, 10, 38; Plin. 7, 2, § 12; Vitr. 7, 14; 7, 12; and ellipt. (cf. supra, 2. γ): pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret! Cic. Phil. 1, 17.—Even of persons: qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat (for apud), Caes. B. G. 6, 38; so id. ib. 1, 31; 3, 9; 5, 53; 7, 5; id. B. C. 3, 60: ad inferos poenas parricidii luent, among, Cic. Phil. 14, 13: neque segnius ad hostes bellum apparatur, Liv. 7, 7, 4: pugna ad Trebiam, ad Trasimenum, ad Cannas, etc., for which Liv. also uses the gen.: si Trasimeni quam Trebiae, si Cannarum quam Trasimeni pugna nobilior esset, 23, 43, 4.—Sometimes used to form the name of a place, although written separately, e. g. ad Murcim, Varr. L. L. 5, § 154: villa ad Gallinas, a villa on the Flaminian Way, Plin. 15, 30, 40, § 37: ad urbem esse (of generals), to remain outside the city (Rome) until permission was given for a triumph: “Esse ad urbem dicebantur, qui cum potestate provinciali aut nuper e provincia revertissent, aut nondum in provinciam profecti essent ... solebant autem, qui ob res in provincia gestas triumphum peterent, extra urbem exspectare, donec, lege lata, triumphantes urbem introire possent,” Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 3, 8.—So sometimes with names of towns and verbs of rest: pons, qui erat ad Genavam, Caes. B. G. 1, 7: ad Tibur mortem patri minatus est, Cic. Phil. 6, 4, 10: conchas ad Caietam legunt, id. Or. 2, 6: ad forum esse, to be at the market, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 136; id. Most. 3, 2, 158; cf. Ter. Ph. 4, 2, 8; id. And. 1, 5, 19.—Hence, adverb., ad dextram (sc. manum, partem), ad laevam, ad sinistram, to the right, to the left, or on the right, on the left: ad dextram, Att. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 225; Plaut. Poen. 3, 4, 1; Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 44; Cic. Univ. 13; Caes. B. C. 1, 69: ad laevam, Enn. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 51; Att. ib. p. 217: ad sinistram, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 43 al.: ad dextram ... ad laevam, Liv. 40, 6; and with an ordinal number: cum plebes ad tertium milliarium consedisset, at the third milestone, Cic. Brut. 14, 54, esp. freq. with lapis: sepultus ad quintum lapidem, Nep. Att. 22, 4; so Liv. 3, 69 al.; Tac. H. 3, 18; 4, 60 (with apud, Ann. 1, 45; 3, 45; 15, 60) al.; cf. Rudd. II. p. 287.
   B In time, analogous to the relations given in A.
   1    Direction toward, i. e. approach to a definite point of time, about, toward: domum reductus ad vesperum, toward evening, Cic. Lael. 3, 12: cum ad hiemem me ex Cilicia recepissem, toward winter, id. Fam. 3, 7.—
   2    The limit or boundary to which a space of time extends, with and without usque, till, until, to, even to, up to: ego ad illud frugi usque et probus fui, Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 53: philosophia jacuit usque ad hanc aetatem, Cic. Tusc. 1, 3, 5; id. de Sen. 14: quid si hic manebo potius ad meridiem, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 55; so id. Men. 5, 7, 33; id. Ps. 1, 5, 116; id. As. 2, 1, 5: ad multam noctem, Cic. de Sen. 14: Sophocles ad summam senectutem tragoedias fecit, id. ib. 2; cf. id. Rep. 1, 1: Alexandream se proficisci velle dixit (Aratus) remque integram ad reditum suum jussit esse, id. Off. 2, 23, 82: bestiae ex se natos amant ad quoddam tempus, id. Lael. 8; so id. de Sen. 6; id. Somn. Sc. 1 al. —And with ab or ab-usque, to desig. the whole period of time passed away: ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus, Cic. Att. 7, 8: usque ab aurora ad hoc diei, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 8.—
   3    Coincidence with a point of time, at, on, in, by: praesto fuit ad horam destinatam, at the appointed hour, Cic. Tusc. 5, 22: admonuit ut pecuniam ad diem solverent, on the day of payment, id. Att. 16, 16 A: nostra ad diem dictam fient, id. Fam. 16, 10, 4; cf. id. Verr. 2, 2, 5: ad lucem denique arte et graviter dormitare coepisse, at (not toward) daybreak, id. Div. 1, 28, 59; so id. Att. 1, 3, 2; 1, 4, 3; id. Fin. 2, 31, 103; id. Brut. 97, 313: ad id tempus, Caes. B. C. 1, 24; Sall. J. 70, 5; Tac. A. 15, 60; Suet. Aug. 87; Domit. 17, 21 al.
   C The relations of number.
   1    An approximation to a sum designated, near, near to, almost, about, toward (cf. Gr. ἐπί, πρός with acc. and the Fr. près de, à peu près, presque) = circiter (Hand, Turs. I. p. 102): ad quadraginta eam posse emi minas, Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 111: nummorum Philippūm ad tria milia, id. Trin. 1, 2, 115; sometimes with quasi added: quasi ad quadraginta minas, as it were about, id. Most. 3, 1, 95; so Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 93: sane frequentes fuimus omnino ad ducentos, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 1: cum annos ad quadraginta natus esset, id. Clu. 40, 110: ad hominum milia decem, Caes. B. G. 1, 4: oppida numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos, id. ib. 1, 5.—In the histt. and post-Aug. authors ad is added adverbially in this sense (contrary to Gr. usage, by which ἀμφί, περί, and εἰς with numerals retain their power as prepositions): ad binum milium numero utrinque sauciis factis, Sisenn. ap. Non. 80, 4: occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor, Caes. B. G. 2, 33: ad duorum milium numero ceciderunt, id. B. C. 3, 53: ad duo milia et trecenti occisi, Liv. 10, 17, 8; so id. 27, 12, 16; Suet. Caes. 20; cf. Rudd. II. p. 334.—
   2    The terminus, the limit, to, unto, even to, a designated number (rare): ranam luridam conicere in aquam usque quo ad tertiam partem decoxeris, Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 26; cf. App. Herb. 41: aedem Junonis ad partem dimidiam detegit, even to the half, Liv. 42, 3, 2: miles (viaticum) ad assem perdiderat, to a farthing, to the last farthing, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 27; Plin. Ep. 1, 15: quid ad denarium solveretur, Cic. Quint. 4.—The phrase omnes ad unum or ad unum omnes, or simply ad unum, means lit. all to one, i. e. all together, all without exception; Gr. οἱ καθ ἕνα πάντες (therefore the gender of unum is changed according to that of omnes): praetor omnes extra castra, ut stercus, foras ejecit ad unum, Lucil. ap. Non. 394, 22: de amicitia omnes ad unum idem sentiunt, Cic. Lael. 23: ad unum omnes cum ipso duce occisi sunt, Curt. 4, 1, 22 al.: naves Rhodias afflixit ita, ut ad unam omnes constratae eliderentur, Caes. B. C. 3, 27; onerariae omnes ad unam a nobis sunt exceptae, Cic. Fam. 12, 14 (cf. in Gr. οἱ καθ ἕνα; in Hebr. , Exod. 14, 28).—Ad unum without omnes: ego eam sententiam dixi, cui sunt assensi ad unum, Cic. Fam. 10, 16: Juppiter omnipotens si nondum exosus ad unum Trojanos, Verg. A. 5, 687.
   D In the manifold relations of one object to another.
   1    That in respect of or in regard to which a thing avails, happens, or is true or important, with regard to, in respect of, in relation to, as to, to, in.
   a With verbs: ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius, in respect to all other things we grow wiser by age, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 45: numquam ita quisquam bene ad vitam fuat, id. ib. 5, 4, 1: nil ibi libatum de toto corpore (mortui) cernas ad speciem, nil ad pondus, that nothing is lost in form or weight, Lucr. 3, 214; cf. id. 5, 570; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 21, § 58; id. Mur. 13, 29: illi regi Cyro subest, ad immutandi animi licentiam, crudelissimus ille Phalaris, in that Cyrus, in regard to the liberty of changing his disposition (i. e. not in reality, but inasmuch as he is at liberty to lay aside his good character, and assume that of a tyrant), there is concealed another cruel Phalaris, Cic. Rep. 1, 28: nil est ad nos, is nothing to us, concerns us not, Lucr. 3, 830; 3, 845: nil ad me attinet, Ter. Ad. 1, 2, 54: nihil ad rem pertinet, Cic. Caecin. 58; and in the same sense elliptically: nihil ad Epicurum, id. Fin. 1, 2, 5; id. Pis. 68: Quid ad praetorem? id. Verr. 1, 116 (this usage is not to be confounded with that under 4.).—
   b With adjectives: ad has res perspicax, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 129: virum ad cetera egregium, Liv. 37, 7, 15: auxiliaribus ad pugnam non multum Crassus confidebat, Caes. B. G. 3, 25: ejus frater aliquantum ad rem est avidior, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 51; cf. id. And. 1, 2, 21; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 129: ut sit potior, qui prior ad dandum est, id. Phorm. 3, 2, 48: difficilis (res) ad credendum, Lucr. 2, 1027: ad rationem sollertiamque praestantior, Cic. N. D. 2, 62; so id. Leg. 2, 13, 33; id. Fin. 2, 20, 63; id. Rosc. Am. 30, 85; id. Font. 15; id. Cat. 1, 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 25, 113; 1, 32, 146; 2, 49, 200; id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; Liv. 9, 16, 13; Tac. A. 12, 54 al.—
   c With nouns: prius quam tuum, ut sese habeat, animum ad nuptias perspexerit, before he knew your feeling in regard to the marriage, Ter. And. 2, 3, 4 (cf. Gr. ὅπως ἔχει τις πρός τι): mentis ad omnia caecitas, Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 11: magna vis est fortunae in utramque partem vel ad secundas res vel ad adversas, id. Off. 2, 6; so id. Par. 1: ad cetera paene gemelli, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 3.—So with acc. of gerund instead of the gen. from the same vb.: facultas ad scribendum, instead of scribendi, Cic. Font. 6; facultas ad agendum, id. de Imp. Pomp. 1, 2: cf. Rudd. II. p. 245.—
   d In gramm.: nomina ad aliquid dicta, nouns used in relation to something, i. e. which derive their significance from their relation to another object: quae non possunt intellegi sola, ut pater, mater; jungunt enim sibi et illa propter quae intelleguntur, Charis. 129 P.; cf. Prisc. 580 ib.—
   2    With words denoting measure, weight, manner, model, rule, etc., both prop. and fig., according to, agreeably to, after (Gr. κατά, πρός): columnas ad perpendiculum exigere, Cic. Mur. 77: taleis ferreis ad certum pondus examinatis, Caes. B. G. 5, 12: facta sunt ad certam formam. Lucr. 2, 379: ad amussim non est numerus, Varr. 2, 1, 26: ad imaginem facere, Vulg. Gen. 1, 26: ad cursus lunae describit annum, Liv. 1, 19: omnia ad diem facta sunt, Caes. B. G. 2, 5: Id ad similitudinem panis efficiebant, id. B. C. 3, 48; Vulg. Gen. 1, 26; id. Jac. 3, 9: ad aequos flexus, at equal angles, Lucr. 4, 323: quasi ad tornum levantur, to or by the lathe, id. 4, 361: turres ad altitudiem valli, Caes. B. G. 5, 42; Liv. 39, 6: ad eandem crassitudinem structi, id. 44, 11: ad speciem cancellorum scenicorum, with the appearance of, like, Varr. R. R. 3, 5, 8: stagnum maris instar, circumseptum aedificiis ad urbium speciem, Suet. Ner. 31: lascivum pecus ludens ad cantum, Liv. Andron. Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 1: canere ad tibiam, Cic. Tusc. 4, 2: canere ad tibicinem, id. ib. 1, 2 (cf.: in numerum ludere, Verg. E. 6, 28; id. G. 4, 175): quod ad Aristophanis lucernam lucubravi, Varr. L. L. 5, § 9 Müll.: carmen castigare ad unguem, to perfection (v. unguis), Hor. A. P. 294: ad unguem factus homo, a perfect gentleman, id. S. 1, 5, 32 (cf. id. ib. 2, 7, 86): ad istorum normam sapientes, Cic. Lael. 5, 18; id. Mur. 3: Cyrus non ad historiae fidem scriptus, sed ad effigiem justi imperii, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8: exercemur in venando ad similitudinem bellicae disciplinae, id. N. D. 2, 64, 161: so, ad simulacrum, Liv. 40, 6: ad Punica ingenia, id. 21, 22: ad L. Crassi eloquentiam, Cic. Var. Fragm. 8: omnia fient ad verum, Juv. 6, 324: quid aut ad naturam aut contra sit, Cic. Fin. 1, 9, 30: ad hunc modum institutus est, id. Tusc. 2, 3; Caes. B. G. 2, 31; 3, 13: ad eundem istunc modum, Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 70: quem ad modum, q. v.: ad istam faciem est morbus, qui me macerat, of that kind, Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 73; id. Merc. 2, 3, 90; cf. 91: cujus ad arbitrium copia materiai cogitur, Lucr. 2, 281: ad eorum arbitrium et nutum totos se fingunt, to their will and pleasure, Cic. Or. 8, 24; id. Quint. 71: ad P. Lentuli auctoritatem Romā contendit, id. Rab. Post. 21: aliae sunt legati partes, aliae imperatoris: alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter libere ad summam rerum consulere debet, Caes. B. C. 3, 51: rebus ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus, Cic. Off. 1, 26: rem ad illorum libidinem judicārunt, id. Font. 36: ad vulgi opinionem, id. Off. 3, 21.—So in later Lat. with instar: ad instar castrorum, Just. 36, 3, 2: scoparum, App. M. 9, p. 232: speculi, id. ib. 2, p. 118: ad hoc instar mundi, id. de Mundo, p. 72.—Sometimes, but very rarely, ad is used absol. in this sense (so also very rarely κατά with acc., Xen. Hell. 2, 3; Luc. Dial. Deor. 8): convertier ad nos, as we (are turned), Lucr. 4, 317: ad navīs feratur, like ships, id. 4, 897 Munro. —With noun: ad specus angustiac vallium, like caves, Caes. B. C. 3, 49.—Hence,
   3    With an object which is the cause or reason, in conformity to which, from which, or for which, any thing is or is done.
   a The moving cause, according to, at, on, in consequence of: cetera pars animae paret et ad numen mentis momenque movetur, Lucr. 3, 144: ad horum preces in Boeotiam duxit, on their entreaty, Liv. 42, 67, 12: ad ea Caesar veniam ipsique et conjugi et fratribus tribuit, in consequence of or upon this, he, etc., Tac. Ann. 12, 37.—
   b The final cause, or the object, end, or aim, for the attainment of which any thing,
   (a)    is done,
   (b)    is designed, or,
   (g)    is fitted or adapted (very freq.), to, for, in order to.
   (a)    Seque ad ludos jam inde abhinc exerceant, Pac. ap. Charis. p. 175 P. (Rib. Trag. Rel. p. 80): venimus coctum ad nuptias, in order to cook for the wedding, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 15: omnis ad perniciem instructa domus, id. Bacch. 3, 1, 6; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 41; Liv. 1, 54: cum fingis falsas causas ad discordiam, in order to produce dissension, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 71: quantam fenestram ad nequitiam patefeceris, id. Heaut. 3, 1, 72: utrum ille, qui postulat legatum ad tantum bellum, quem velit, idoneus non est, qui impetret, cum ceteri ad expilandos socios diripiendasque provincias, quos voluerunt, legatos eduxerint, Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 19, 57: ego vitam quoad putabo tua interesse, aut ad spem servandam esse, retinebo, for hope, id. Q. Fr. 1, 4; id. Fam. 5, 17: haec juventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant, Sall. C. 13, 4: ad speciem atque ad usurpationem vetustatis, Cic. Agr. 2, 12, 31; Suet. Caes. 67: paucis ad speciem tabernaculis relictis, for appearance, Caes. B. C. 2, 35; so id. ib. 2, 41; id. B. G. 1, 51.—
   (b)    Aut equos alere aut canes ad venandum. Ter. And. 1, 1, 30: ingenio egregie ad miseriam natus sum, id. Heaut. 3, 1, 11; (in the same sense: in rem, Hor. C. 1, 27, 1, and the dat., Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 6): ad cursum equum, ad arandum bovem, ad indagandum canem, Cic. Fin. 2, 13, 40: ad frena leones, Verg. A. 10, 253: delecto ad naves milite, marines, Liv. 22, 19 Weissenb.: servos ad remum, rowers, id. 34, 6; and: servos ad militiam emendos, id. 22, 61, 2: comparāsti ad lecticam homines, Cat. 10, 16: Lygdamus ad cyathos, Prop. 4, 8, 37; cf.: puer ad cyathum statuetur, Hor. C. 1, 29, 8.—
   (g)    Quae oportet Signa esse ad salutem, omnia huic osse video, everything indicative of prosperity I see in him, Ter. And. 3, 2, 2: haec sunt ad virtutem omnia, id. Heaut. 1, 2, 33: causa ad objurgandum, id. And. 1, 1, 123: argumentum ad scribendum, Cic. Att. 9, 7 (in both examples instead of the gen. of gerund., cf. Rudd. II. p. 245): vinum murteum est ad alvum crudam, Cato R. R. 125: nulla res tantum ad dicendum proficit, quantum scriptio, Cic. Brut. 24: reliquis rebus, quae sunt ad incendia, Caes. B. C. 3, 101 al.—So with the adjectives idoneus, utilis, aptus, instead of the dat.: homines ad hanc rem idoneos, Plaut. Poen. 3, 2, 6: calcei habiles et apti ad pedem, Cic. de Or. 1, 54, 231: orator aptus tamen ad dicendum, id. Tusc. 1, 3, 5: sus est ad vescendum hominibus apta, id. N. D. 2, 64, 160: homo ad nullam rem utilis, id. Off. 3, 6: ad segetes ingeniosus ager, Ov. F. 4, 684.—(Upon the connection of ad with the gerund. v. Zumpt, § 666; Rudd. II. p. 261.)—
   4    Comparison (since that with which a thing is compared is considered as an object to which the thing compared is brought near for the sake of comparison), to, compared to or with, in comparison with: ad sapientiam hujus ille (Thales) nimius nugator fuit, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 25; id. Trin. 3, 2, 100: ne comparandus hic quidem ad illum'st, Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 14; 2, 3, 69: terra ad universi caeli complexum, compared with the whole extent of the heavens, Cic. Tusc. 1, 17, 40: homini non ad cetera Punica ingenia callido, Liv. 22, 22, 15: at nihil ad nostram hanc, nothing in comparison with, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 70; so Cic. Deiot. 8, 24; and id. de Or. 2, 6, 25.
   E Adverbial phrases with ad.
   1    Ad omnia, withal, to crown all: ingentem vim peditum equitumque venire: ex India elephantos: ad omnia tantum advehi auri, etc., Liv. 35, 32, 4.—
   2    Ad hoc and ad haec (in the historians, esp. from the time of Livy, and in authors after the Aug. per.), = praeterea, insuper, moreover, besides, in addition, ἐπί τούτοις: nam quicumque impudicus, adulter, ganeo, etc.: praeterea omnes undique parricidae, etc.: ad hoc, quos manus atque lingua perjurio aut sanguine civili alebat: postremo omnes, quos, etc., Sall. C. 14, 2 and 3: his opinionibus inflato animo, ad hoc vitio quoque ingenii vehemens, Liv. 6, 11, 6; 42, 1, 1; Tac. H. 1, 6; Suet. Aug. 22 al.—
   3    Ad id quod, beside that (very rare): ad id quod sua sponte satis conlectum animorum erat, indignitate etiam Romani accendebantur, Liv. 3, 62, 1; so 44, 37, 12.—
   4    Ad tempus.
   a At a definite, fixed time, Cic. Att. 13, 45; Liv. 38, 25, 3.—
   b At a fit, appropriate time, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 54, § 141; Liv. 1, 7, 13.—
   c For some time, for a short time, Cic. Off. 1, 8, 27; id. Lael. 15, 53; Liv. 21, 25, 14.—
   d According to circumstances, Cic. Planc. 30, 74; id. Cael. 6, 13; Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 9.—
   5    Ad praesens (for the most part only in post-Aug. writers).
   a For the moment, for a short time, Cic. Fam. 12, 8; Plin. 8, 22, 34; Tac. A. 4, 21.—
   b At present, now, Tac. A. 16, 5; id. H. 1, 44.—So, ad praesentiam, Tac. A. 11, 8.—
   6    Ad locum, on the spot: ut ad locum miles esset paratus, Liv. 27, 27, 2.—
   7    Ad verbum, word for word, literally, Cic. Fin. 1, 2, 4; id. de Or. 1, 34, 157; id. Ac. 2, 44, 135 al.—
   8    Ad summam.
   a On the whole, generally, in general, Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3; id. Att. 14, 1; Suet. Aug. 71.—
   b In a word, in short, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 106. —
   9    Ad extremum, ad ultimum, ad postremum.
   a At the end, finally, at last.
   (a)    Of place, at the extremity, extreme point, top, etc.: missile telum hastili abiegno et cetera tereti, praeterquam ad extremum, unde ferrum exstabat, Liv. 21, 8, 10.—
   (b)    Of time = τέλος δέ, at last, finally: ibi ad postremum cedit miles, Plaut. Aul. 3, 5, 52; so id. Poen. 4, 2, 22; Cic. Off. 3, 23, 89; id. Phil. 13, 20, 45; Caes. B. G. 7, 53; Liv. 30, 15, 4 al.— Hence,
   (g)    of order, finally, lastly, = denique: inventa componere; tum ornare oratione; post memoria sepire; ad extremum agere cum dignitate, Cic. de Or. 1, 31, 142.—
   b In Liv., to the last degree, quite: improbus homo, sed non ad extremum perditus, 23, 2, 3; cf.: consilii scelerati, sed non ad ultimum dementis, id. 28, 28, 8.—
   10    Quem ad finem? To what limit? How far? Cic. Cat. 1, 1; id. Verr. 5, 75.—
   11    Quem ad modum, v. sub h. v.!*?
   a Ad (v. ab, ex, in, etc.) is not repeated like some other prepositions with interrog. and relative pronouns, after nouns or demonstrative pronouns: traducis cogitationes meas ad voluptates. Quas? corporis credo, Cic. Tusc. 3, 17, 37 (ubi v. Kühner).—
   b Ad is sometimes placed after its substantive: quam ad, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 39: senatus, quos ad soleret, referendum censuit, Cic. N. D. 2, 4: ripam ad Araxis, Tac. Ann. 12, 51; or between subst. and adj.: augendam ad invidiam, id. ib. 12, 8.—
   c The compound adque for et ad (like exque, eque, and, poet., aque) is denied by Moser, Cic. Rep. 2, 15, p. 248, and he reads instead of ad humanitatem adque mansuetudinem of the MSS., hum. atque mans. But adque, in acc. with later usage, is restored by Hand in App. M. 10, p. 247, adque haec omnia oboediebam for atque; and in Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 9, utroque vorsum rectum'st ingenium meum, ad se adque illum, is now read, ad te atque ad illum (Fleck., Brix).
II In composition.
   A Form. According to the usual orthography, the d of the ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before b, d, h, m, v: adbibo, adduco, adhibeo, admoveo, advenio; it is assimilated to c, f, g, l, n, p, r, s, t: accipio, affigo, aggero, allabor, annumero, appello, arripio, assumo, attineo; before g and s it sometimes disappears: agnosco, aspicio, asto: and before qu it passes into c: acquiro, acquiesco.—But later philologists, supported by old inscriptions and good MSS., have mostly adopted the following forms: ad before j, h, b, d, f, m, n, q, v; ac before c, sometimes, but less well, before q; ag and also ad before g; a before gn, sp, sc, st; ad and also al before l; ad rather than an before n; ap and sometimes ad before p; ad and also ar before r; ad and also as before s; at and sometimes ad before t. In this work the old orthography has commonly been retained for the sake of convenient reference, but the better form in any case is indicated.—
   B Signif. In English up often denotes approach, and in many instances will give the force of ad as a prefix both in its local and in its figurative sense.
   1    Local.
   a To, toward: affero, accurro, accipio (to one's self).—
   b At, by: astare, adesse.—
   c On, upon, against: accumbo, attero.—
   d Up (cf. de- = down, as in deicio, decĭdo): attollo, ascendo, adsurgo.—
   2    Fig.
   a To: adjudico, adsentior.—
   b At or on: admiror, adludo.—
   c Denoting conformity to, or comparison with: affiguro, adaequo.—
   d Denoting addition, increase (cf. ab, de, and ex as prefixes to denote privation): addoceo, adposco.—
   e Hence, denoting intensity: adamo, adimpleo, aduro, and perhaps agnosco.—
   f Denoting the coming to an act or state, and hence commencement: addubito, addormio, adquiesco, adlubesco, advesperascit. See more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 74-134.

Latin > French (Gaffiot 2016)

ad,² prép. qui régit l’acc.
    I [sens local]
    A [idée générale de mouvement, de direction, au pr. et au fig.]
1 vers, à : legatos ad aliquem mittere, envoyer des ambassadeurs à qqn || avec les noms de lieu, ad exprime l’idée d’approche ou bien l’idée d’arrivée ; l’idée d’entrée dans le lieu est exprimée par in : ad urbem proficisci Cæs. C. 1, 32, 1, partir pour la ville [Rome] ; ad urbem venire Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 167, venir à la ville || avec les noms de villes et de petites îles, ad exprime la direction ou l’arrivée dans les environs : ad Genavam pervertit Cæs. G. 1, 7, 1, il arriva près de Genève ; ad Mutinam proficisci Cic. Phil. 12, 8, partir pour Modène ; dux classium fuit ad Ilium Cic. Div. 1, 87, il Calchas dirigea les flottes vers Ilion || [en lang. milit.] vers, contre : ad hostes contendere Cæs. G. 5, 9, 1, marcher contre les ennemis ; ad castra pergere Cæs. G. 3, 18, 8, se porter contre le camp || ad vim atque arma confugere Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 78, chercher un refuge dans (recourir à) la force et les armes ; ad insolitum genus dicendi labi Cic. Sest. 119, se laisser glisser vers un genre de discours insolite ; [avec ellipse du v.] nunc ad ea quæ scripsisti Cic. Att. 3, 8, 2, venons-en maintenant à ce que tu m’as écrit
2 [idée d’attacher, lier] : ad terram naves deligare Cæs. G. 4, 29, 2, attacher des vaisseaux au rivage || [idée d’ajouter, annexer]: complecti vis amplissimos viros ad tuum scelus Cic. Pis. 75, tu veux envelopper dans ton crime les hommes les plus considérables ; ad cetera volnera Cic. Vat. 20, outre les autres blessures, cf. Clu. 30 ; Liv. 7, 16, 2 ; ad naves viginti quinque Liv. 23, 38, 7, en plus des 25 navires, cf. 24, 45, 3 ; 25, 3, 7, etc. ; ad hæc, en outre : Varro R. 3, 5, 11 ; Liv. 6, 20, 7, etc. ; ou ad hoc Sall. C. 14, 3 ; 17, 4, etc. ; ad id Liv. 3, 62, 1, etc.
3 [idée de diriger, incliner] : ad centuriones ora convertunt Cæs. G. 6, 39, 2, ils tournent leurs visages vers les centurions ; omnium mentibus ad pugnam intentis Cæs. G. 3, 26, 2, l’attention de tous étant portée sur le combat ; ad ægrotandum proclivitas Cic. Tusc. 4, 28, tendance (disposition) à la maladie ; paulatim angustiore ad infimum fastigio Cæs. G. 7, 73, 5, la pente allant en se resserrant peu à peu vers le bas [en entonnoir] || ad omne periculum opponitur (consulatus) Cic. Mur. 87, (le consulat) s’expose à tous les dangers ; ergo hæc ad populum Cic. Att. 6, 6, 4, donc voilà pour le peuple || [idée de protection, de défense contre] : ad meos impetus opponitur... Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, à mes assauts on oppose
4 [idée d’adresser par écrit, par la parole, etc.] : ad aliquem omnia in dies singulos persequi Cic. Att. 15, 26, 1, envoyer à qqn une relation quotidienne de tous les événements ; sibi a Lentulo ad Catilinam datas esse (litteras) Cic. Cat. 3, 12, que Lentulus lui avait remis une lettre à l’adresse de Catilina ; epistula C. Verris ad Neronem Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 83, lettre de C. Verrès à Néron || [verbe non exprimé] : tu modo quam sæpissime ad me aliquid Cic. Att. 4, 6, 4, pourvu que tu m’envoies le plus souvent possible quelques lignes ; velim scribas ad me primum placeatne tibi aliquid ad illum Cic. Att. 13, 16, 2, je voudrais que tu m’écrives d’abord, si tu es d’avis que je lui dédie qq. ouvrage
5 [indication de distance, de limite] à, jusqu’à : ex eo oppido pons ad Helvetios pertinet Cæs. G. 1, 6, 3, de cette ville un pont s’étend jusque chez les Helvètes ; usque ad ultimas terras Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 64, jusqu’aux confins de la terre || [au fig.] ad vivum Cic. Læl. 18, jusqu’au vif ; ad plenum Virg. G. 2, 244, jusqu’au plein ; pecunia ad sanum modum habendi parata Sen. Ben. 1, 11, 5, l’argent acquis jusqu’à un raisonnable degré de possession ; non ad perfectum nec ad plenum Sen. Ep. 71, 18, non pas jusqu’à la perfection ni à la plénitude ; si ea mercatus esses ad eam summam quam volueram Cic. Fam. 7, 23, 1, si tu avais fait l’achat en te limitant à la somme que je voulais || ad numerum obsides mittere Cæs. G. 5, 20, 4, envoyer des otages jusqu’au nombre fixé ; in eorum locum et ad eorum numerum Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 73, à leur place et en pareil nombre ; equitatus omnis, ad numerum quattuor milium Cæs. G. 1, 15, 1, toute la cavalerie, à l’effectif de 4 000 hommes ; ad certum pondus examinare Cæs. G. 5, 12, 4, peser jusqu’à un poids déterminé ; fossas ad eandem magnitudinem perficere Cæs. C. 1, 42, 1, creuser des fossés à la même profondeur || ad verbum unum contracta brevitas Cic. de Or. 3, 157, brièveté ramassée en un mot unique ; numerum ad trecentorum summam explevit Liv. 2, 1, 10, il compléta le nombre jusqu’à un total de 300 || usque ad novem Cic. Ac. 2, 94, jusqu’à neuf ; omnes ad unum Cic. Læl. 86, tous jusqu’au dernier, tous sans exception ; omnibus navibus ad unam incolumibus Cæs. C. 3, 6, 3, tous les navires sans exception étant indemnes.
    B [sans idée de mouvement]
1 près de, chez : fuit ad me sane diu Cic. Att. 10, 4, 8, il resta chez moi très longtemps ; in servitute ad suum patrem manere Pl. Capt. 49, rester comme esclave chez son propre père, cf. Ter. Haut. 979 ; Varro R. 1, 17, 3 ; Cato Agr. 7, 2 ; Liv. 24, 48, 9 ; Sen. Ep. 108, 4 || ad recuperatores dicere Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 68, parler devant les récupérateurs ; ad judicem Cic. Br. 289, devant le juge ; ad populum agere Cic. Phil. 12, 17, plaider devant le peuple || ad exercitum manere Cæs. G. 5, 53, 3, rester à l’armée, cf. 7, 5, 3 ; ad Cæsarem primum pilum ducere Cæs. G. 6, 38, 1, être centurion primipile dans l’armée de César || ad pedes, près des pieds, aux pieds : Cic. Div. 1, 46 ; Sen. Ben. 3, 27, 1, etc. || ad omnes nationes sanctum nomen Cæs. G. 3, 9, 3, titre sacré auprès de toutes les nations, cf. G. 4, 16, 7 ; 7, 5, 3 ; Liv. 21, 60, 4, etc.
2 [proximité d’un lieu] près de : ad urbem esse Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 21, être près de la ville [Rome] ; ad oppidum constitit Cæs. C. 1, 16, 4, il s’arrêta près de la ville ; pons qui erat ad Genavam Cæs. G. 1, 7, 2, le pont qui était près de Genève || [en parlant de batailles] : ad Nolam Cic. Br. 12, bataille de Nola ; ad Tenedum Cic. Mur. 33, de Ténédos ; ad Magetobrigam Cæs. G. 1, 31, 12, à Magetobriga, ad Cannas Liv. 23, 11, 7, etc. || à, dans [emploi rare : ad villam ali Cic. Amer. 44, se nourrir dans la maison de campagne ; quæ ad ædem Felicitatis sunt Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 4, [statues] qui sont dans le temple du Bonheur || [avec ellipse de ædem ] : ad Castoris Cic. Quinct. 17, près du temple de Castor ; senatus ad Apollinis fuit Cic. Q. 2, 3, 3, le sénat tint séance au temple d’Apollon || du côté de, vers : pugnatur acriter ad novissimum agmen Cæs. C. 1, 80, 5, le combat est acharné du côté de l’arrière-garde, cf. C. 1, 63, 3 ; 2, 42, 5 ; castris ad eam partem oppidi positis Cæs. G. 7, 17, 1, le camp ayant été établi de ce côté de la ville ; equestribus prœliis ad aquam factis Cæs. G. 5, 50, 1, des engagements de cavalerie ayant eu lieu près du ruisseau ; ad lævam, ad dextram Cic. Tim. 48, vers la gauche, vers la droite (à g., à dr.) ; ad pulvinaria Cic. Cat. 3, 23, [près des coussins] à tous les temples ; ad solarium Cic. Quinct. 59, aux alentours du cadran solaire ; ad speculum barbam vellere Sen. Nat. 1, 17, 2, s’épiler devant un miroir ; ad ignem coquere Cato Agr. 81, cuire au feu, sur le feu
3 [adaptation, accompagnement] : cantare ad chordarum sonum Nep. Epam. 2, 1, chanter aux sons d’un instrument à cordes ; ad tibicinem Cic. Agr. 2, 93 ; Tusc. 1, 3, etc., avec accompagnement du joueur de flûte || ad lucernam Sen. Ira 3, 18, 4, à la lueur d’une lampe, cf. Cic. Q. 3, 7, 2 ; ad faces Sen. Brev. 20, 5, à la lueur des torches ; ad lunam Virg. En. 4, 513, à la lumière de la lune ; ad clepsydram Cic. de Or. 3, 138, sous le contrôle de la clepsydre [avec un temps mesuré]
4 [adhérence] : ad radices linguæ hærens Cic. Nat. 2, 135, fixé à la base de la langue ; ad saxa inhærens Cic. Nat. 2, 100, attaché aux rochers
5 [participation à], [au lieu de scribendo adesse Cic. Fam. 8, 8, 5, etc. ] ad scribendum esse, être à (participer à) la rédaction d’un sénatus-consulte : Cic. Att. 1, 19, 9 ; Fam. 12, 29, 2.
    II [sens temporel] :
1 jusqu’à : ad summam senectutem Cic. Br. 179, jusqu’à la plus grande vieillesse ; usque ad hanc diem Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 130 ; ad hanc diem Cic. Cat. 3, 17, jusqu’au jourd’hui ; ad hoc tempus Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 216, jusqu’au moment présent ; ad multam noctem Cæs. G. 1, 26, 3, jusqu’à un moment avancé de la nuit ; ad nostram memoriam Nep. Them. 10, 3, jusqu’à notre époque ; ad reditum nostrum Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3, jusqu’à notre retour ; veteres illi usque ad Socratem Cic. de Or. 3, 72, ces anciens jusqu’à Socrate
2 [approximation] vers : ad vesperam Cic. Cat. 2, 6, sur le soir ; ad lucem Cic. Div. 1, 99, vers le point du jour ; ad extremam orationem Cæs. G. 7, 53, 1, sur la fin du discours ; ad exitum defensionis tuæ Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 32, (sur) à la fin de ta défense ; ad adventum imperatorum Nep. Att. 10, 2, à l’arrivée des triumvirs, cf. Cic. Att. 2, 17, 3 ; 13, 15, 2
3 [précision] à : ad diem Cæs. G. 2, 5, 1, au jour fixé, cf. 7, 77, 10 ; Cic. Off. 3, 45 ; ad idus Cæs. G. 1, 7, 6, aux ides ; ad tempus, à temps, au moment opportun Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 141 ; Cæs. G. 4, 23, 5 [mais Cic. Fin. 5, 1 et Att. 16, 2, 2, au moment fixé] ; ad extremum Cic. Or. 174 ; de Or. 1, 142, enfin
4 [durée limitée, sens voisin de jusqu’à] pour : brevis est et ad tempus Cic. Off. 1, 27, [passion qui] est courte et pour un temps ; bestiæ ex se natos amant ad quoddam tempus Cic. Læl. 27, les bêtes aiment leur progéniture pour un temps limité ; ad tempus lectus Liv. 28, 24, 5, élu provisoirement, cf. 21, 25, 14
5 [avenir] dans : ad annum Cic. Att. 5, 2, 1, [il sera tribun de la plèbe] dans un an, l’année prochaine, cf. de Or. 3, 92 ; ad decem milia annorum Cic. Tusc. 1, 90, dans 10 000 ans.
    III [rapports variés] :
1 pour, en vue de [avec les verbes qui signifient exhorter à, pousser à, préparer à, disposer pour ; se servir pour ; travailler à ; envoyer pour, etc. ; avec les adjectifs et, d’une manière générale, les expressions qui marquent le but ; très souvent ad est suivi du gérondif ou de l’adj. verbal] : ad celeritatem onerandi paulo facit humiliores (naves) Cæs. G. 5, 1, 2, en vue de la promptitude du chargement, il fait faire les vaisseaux un peu plus bas ; ad omnes casus Cæs. G. 4, 31, 2, etc., (en vue de) pour toutes les éventualités ; naves factæ ad quamvis vim perferendam Cæs. G. 3, 13, 3, navires faits pour supporter n’importe quelle violence ; tu omnia ad pacem ; ego omnia ad libertatem Cic. ad Br. 5, 1, [ellipse du v.] toi, c’était tout pour la paix ; moi, tout pour la liberté ; non ad eam rem, sed ut Cic. Tull. 49, ce n’est pas dans cette intention, c’est pour que ; ad hoc, ut subj. Liv. 28, 39, 7 ; 45, 39, 8, en vue de, pour que
2 [marquant le résultat, l’aboutissement] : ex agresti vita exculti ad humanitatem Cic. Leg. 2, 36, façonnés et amenés d’une vie sauvage à la civilisation ; efferavit ea cædes Thebanos ad execrabile odium Romanorum Liv. 33, 29, 1, ce meurtre déchaîna les Thébains et leur inspira une haine implacable contre les Romains ; mutatis repente ad misericordiam animis Liv. 24, 26, 14, la fureur populaire s’étant changée soudain en compassion || ad necem Cic. Tusc. 2, 34, [frapper] jusqu’à ce que mort s’ensuive ; ad insaniam aliquid concupiscere Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 87, désirer qqch. jusqu’à être fou ; nihil intolerabile ad demittendum animum, nimis lætabile ad ecferendum Cic. Tusc. 4, 37, rien qui soit intolérable, au point d’abattre l’âme, qui cause trop de joie, au point de la transporter
3 relativement à : genus prædandi ad magnitudinem quæstus immensum Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 22, genre de pillage sans limite quant à la grandeur des profits ; ad cetera egregius Liv. 37, 7, 15, remarquable sous tous les autres rapports || quid id ad rem ? Cic. Quinct. 79, quel rapport cela a-t-il avec l’affaire ? quid ad prætorem ? Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 116, en quoi cela intéresse-t-il le préteur ? quid egerit, nihil ad causam Cic. Sest. 71, ce qu’il a accompli ? cela ne regarde pas le procès ; ad ea quæ scribis... Cic. Att. 11, 21, 1, quant à ce que tu écris...
4 suivant, conformément à, d’après : ad meam rationem usumque non æstimo Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 13, à consulter mes principes et mon usage personnel, je ne formule pas d’évaluation ; versare suam naturam ad tempus Cic. Cæl. 13, modifier son caractère suivant les circonstances ; hanc ad legem Cic. de Or. 3, 190, d’après ces principes ; ad naturam Cic. Fin. 1, 30, conformément à la nature ; ad nutum alicujus Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 13, selon la volonté de qqn ; ad perpendiculum Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 133, suivant la perpendiculaire ; ad istorum normam sapiens Cic. Læl. 18, sage suivant leur (équerre) règle
5 en comparaison de : terram ad universi cæli complexum quasi puncti instar obtinere Cic. Tusc. 1, 40, que la terre occupe pour ainsi dire l’équivalent d’un point en comparaison de l’étendue qu’embrasse le ciel ; sed nihil ad Persium Cic. de Or. 2, 25, mais ce n’est rien au prix de Persius, cf. Leg. 1, 6
6 comme suite à, par suite de : ad clamorem convenerunt Cæs. G. 4, 37, 2, aux cris poussés, ils se rassemblèrent ; ad infirmitatem laterum contentionem omnem remiserat Cic. Br. 202, en raison de la faiblesse de ses poumons, il avait renoncé à tout effort violent ; ad quorum stridorem odoremque et aspectum territi equi Liv. 30, 18, 7, au bruit, à l’odeur et à l’aspect de ces animaux, les chevaux effrayés ; obstupuerant ad magnitudinem pristinæ ejus fortunæ Liv. 39, 50, 2, ils restaient béants devant la grandeur de son ancienne fortune ; ad quorum discessum respiravit Mago Liv. 28, 30, 2, à leur départ Magon respira || ad auditas voces Ov. M. 5, 509, entendant ces paroles ; ad hæc visa auditaque Liv. 2, 23, 7, à cette vue, à ces paroles ; ad crescentem tumultum Liv. 2, 45, 12, devant le tumulte croissant
7 [direction vers, réponse à] : cum ad singula acclamaretur Liv. 34, 37, 3, comme à chaque point énoncé des cris de protestation s’élevaient, cf. 24, 14, 9 ; est ridiculum ad ea quæ habemus nihil dicere Cic. Arch. 8, c’est une plaisanterie que de ne rien répliquer à des faits dont nous avons la constatation ; ad tuam epistolam, redditæ sunt meæ litteræ Cic. Att. 9, 9, 3, en réponse à ta missive on t’a remis ma lettre || [sans verbe] : longum est ad omnia Cic. Nat. 1, 19, il serait trop long de faire réponse à tout ; ad ista alias Cic. Nat. 2, 1, à une autre fois la réponse à cela ; hæc fere ad litteras Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 7, voilà d’une manière générale ma réponse à la lettre ; nisi quid ad hæc forte vultis Cic. Læl. 32, à moins que vous ne vouliez par hasard faire qq. objection
8 [idée d’approcher, d’appliquer contre], [d’où sens instrumental]: cornu ad saxa limato Plin. 8, 71, la corne étant limée aux rochers ; ad cribrum Plin. 16, 54 ; ad circinum Vitr. Arch. 10, 4, 1 ; ad tornum Lucr. 4, 361 ; ad cotem Plin. 24, 89, au crible, au compas, au tour, à la pierre à aiguiser [comp. au figuré ad normam ] ; mucronem ad buccam probare Petr. 70, 3, éprouver une pointe sur la joue || ad digiti sonum vocare aliquem Tib. 1, 2, 32, appeler qqn au bruit des doigts ; [enfin, dans la l. vulg.] : ad pectinem capillum flectere Spart. Hadr. 2, 6, 1, arranger au peigne sa chevelure ; ad fundas lapides jacere Veg. Mil. 2, 15, jeter des pierres à la fronde ; ad spongiam... detergere Veg. Mul. 4, 6, 2, essuyer à l’éponge
9 [approximation] vers, environ [devant un nom de nombre] : ad hominum milia decem Cæs. G. 1, 4, 2, environ 10 000 hommes || [emploi adverbial] : occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor Cæs. G. 2, 33, 5, 4 000 hommes environ ayant été tués.
     placé après le relatif : quem ad Pl. Bacch. 176 ; quam ad Ter. Phorm. 524 ; quos ad Cic. Nat. 2, 10 || après le subst. : ripam ad Araxis Tac. Ann. 12, 51 || entre le qualific. et le subst. : augendam ad invidiam Tac. Ann. 12, 8 || la forme ar se trouvait assez souvent en composition à l’époque archaïque : arveho Cato Agr. 135, 7 ; arfuisse S. C. Bacch. CIL 1, 581, 21 ; etc.

Latin > German (Georges)

(1) ad1 = at, w.s.
(2) ad2 (altlat. ar, w.s., urspr. wohl at [vgl. at -avus ], gotisch at), Praep. m. Acc., bezeichnet zunächst die im Werden begriffene Annäherung, d.h. Richtung in der Bewegung u. Ausdehnung zu oder nach einem Ziele, dann aber auch die vollendete Annäherung, d.h. Richtung in der Ruhe = Nähe bei einem Punkte, deutsch zu, nach, an (Ggstz. in m. Akk.; vgl. Sen. ep. 73, 16: deus ad homines venit : immo, quod est propius, in homines), I) im Raume: A) eig.: 1) zur Bezeichnung der Richtung in der Bewegung und Ausdehnung: a) in der Bewegung, zu, nach, an, nach od. an... hin, nach od. auf... zu, auf... los, accedere ad aedes has, Plaut., ad flammam, Ter., ad Aquinum, Cic.: proficisci ad eum fundum, ad Capuam, Cic.: proficisci ad Syphacem, auf den S. losmarschieren, Liv.: venire ad Cn. Pompei castra, Cic.: venire ad alqm, zu jmd., Cic., auf jmd. los, Caes.: concurrere ad curiam, Cic.: reverti ad alqm, Caes.: transcurrere ad forum, Ter. – ire visere ad alqm, zu jmd., Ter.: ire ad hostem, auf den F. los, Liv. – spectare, despicere ad alqm, Plaut.: u. spectare ad orientem solem, liegen nach usw. (v. Örtl.), Caes.: u. ebenso vergere ad septentriones, Caes., ad Atticam, Plin. – ducere cohortem ad eam partem munitionis, quae etc., Caes.: ducere legiones ad hostem, auf den F. los, gegen den F., Liv. – mittere legatos ad alqm, Caes.: mittere librum ad alqm, an jmd. schicken, ihm widmen, Cic.: dah. ellipt. libri ad Rhodios (sc. missi), an die Rh., Nep., und auf Büchertiteln, M. Tulli Ciceronis ad M. Brutum orator u. dgl. – tendere manus ad caelum, Caes.: convertere simulacrum Iovis ad orientem, Cic.: vertier (verti) ad lapidem, Lucr. – beim Genet. v. Götternamen mit Auslassung von aedem, zB. ad Dianae (sc. aedem) venire, Ter. – in der Umgangsspr., bei Pers., bes. beim pron. pers., zur Bezeichnung der Wohnung, ad me, ad te, ad se, ad vos, zu mir usw. = in mein Haus (chez moi), Komik., Cic. u.a. – b) in der Ausdehnung, bis zu, bis nach, bis an, bis auf, ab angulo castrorum ad flumen, Caes. – a Salonis ad Oricum, Caes. – m. usque, dona usque ad Numantiam misit ex Asia, Cic.: ab imis unguibus usque ad verticem summum, Cic.
2) zur Bezeichnung der Annäherung, Richtung in der Ruhe = a) bei, an, vor, sedere ad latus eius, Cic.: iacēre ad pedes alcis, Cic.: u. iacēre od. esse ad meridiem, gegen M. (v. Örtl.), Varr. LL. u. Liv.: habere hortos ad Tiberim, Cic.: villa, quae est ad Baulos, Cic. : u. istos libros legit ad Misenum, bei M. = auf dem Landgute bei M., Cic.: pugna ad Trebiam, Liv.: ad Nolam proelium, Cic.: victoria ad Cannas, Liv. – adesse ad portam, Cic.: esse ad dextram, Cic., ad laevam, Plaut.: esse ad manum (s. 1. manus.), Cic.: manere ad regem, Liv., ad exercitum, Caes.: segnius bel lum ad hostes apparatur, Liv.: tantum esse nomen eius exercitus etiam ad ultimas Germanorum nationes, Caes.: ut esset ad posteros miraculi eius monumentum, Liv.: iactantia gloriaque ad posteros, Tac. – bes., esse ad urbem, v. röm. Magistratspers., die mit Gefolge u. Militärbefehl reisen u. an einem Orte ihr Standquartier aufschlagen, Cic.: u. esse od. remanere ad urbem, esse ad portas, v. Feldherrn, der mit dem Oberbefehle vor Rom weilt, aber als solcher in die Stadt zu kommen nicht berechtigt ist, Cic. – esse ad alqm, bei jmd. (im Hause als Besuchender) sein, Cic.: ebenso cenare ad alqm, Gell. – u. oft ad alqm = bei, vor jmd., zur Bezeichnung der Pers., unter deren Leitung, Teilnahme usw. etwas vorgeht (s. Brix Plaut. capt. prol. 49), excusationem quaerere ad Brutum, Cic.: ad iudicem agere, Cic.: ad tibicinem hostias immolare, unter Begleitung eines Flötenspielers, Cic. – ebenso ad alqd, bei, zu etw., zur Bezeichnung des Ggstnds., unter dessen Einflusse etwas vorgeht (s. Fritzsche zu Hor. sat. 2, 8, 32), ad vinum, beim W., ad lumina, beim L., Cic.: ad tibiam, zur Flöte, unter Flötenbegleitung, Cic.: ad lychnuchum ligneolum, Cic.: ad lunam, Verg. u. Hor.: ad lunae lumina, Ov. – b) an = auf, in (s. Brix Plaut. mil. 930. Halm Cic. Rosc. Am. 44), ad forum, Ter.: ad villam, Cic.: ad portum, Plaut.: ad aedem Felicitatis, Cic.: ad orientem, im O., Liv. epit.: ad omnia deorum templa, Cic.: u. so ellipt., ad Castoris (sc. aedem), Cic. – u. zur Bezeichnung v. Örtl., ad capita bubula, zu den O., Suet.: ad gallinas, Plin.
B) übtr.: 1) von der Richtung in der Bewegung, Ausdehnung: a) von der Richtung in der Bewegung: α) übh., nach den Verben, die ein Bewegen, Antreiben usw. zu etw. anzeigen, wie movere, commovere, mutare, ducere, inducere, impellere, hortari, adhortari, admonere, invitare u.a. (w.s.). – β) zur Angabe des Strebens und der Neigung, bei den Substst. cupiditas, aviditas, alacritas u.a. (w.s.). – bei den Adjj. avidus, propensus, intentus, acer u.a. (w.s.). – bei Verben, wie provincia summā contentione ad officia certans, Planc. bei Cic. – γ) zur Angabe der Bestimmung, des Endzwecks, der Absicht, zu, für, bei Substst. (bes. ad mit folg. Gerund. od. Gerundiv.), jedoch fast immer durch ein Verbum gestützt (s. Spengel Ter. Andr. 138), mentis ad omnia caecitas, Cic.: ad auxilium copia, Ter.: ad narrandum benignitas, Plaut.: adiutorem esse ad iniuriam, Cic.: ne irato facultas ad dicendum data esse videatur, Cic.: occasionem ad rem gerendam fore, Cic.: argumentum ad scribendum alci deest, Cic. – bei Adjj., wie natus, factus, doctus, aptus, idoneus, utilis u.a. (w.s.). – nach Verben, wie adiuvare, conferre, facere, conficere, esse (dienen), pertinere u.a. (w.s.). – ebenso nach den Verben deposcere, decernere, deligere u.a. (w.s.). – oft ad id, dazu, deshalb, zu dem Zwecke, ad id fabrefacta navigia, Liv.: duae cohortes ad id ipsum (eigens dazu) instructae intus, Liv.: qui ad id missi erant, Liv. (vgl. Fabri zu Liv. 24, 48, 7 u. Hand Tursell. 1, 126). – u. quid ad rem? was macht das? Cic.: quid ad me? was geht mich das an? Cic. – dah. αα) bei Mitteln, bes. Heilmitteln, zu, für, gegen, quae sint animadversa a medicis... radicum genera ad morsus bestiarum, ad oculorum morbos etc., Cic.: remedium ad tertianam, Petr. – u. auch hier nach Verben, wie esse (sein = dienen), valere, posse, proficere u.a. (w.s.). – ββ) zur Angabe des Geschäfts, zu dem jmd. od. etw. bestimmt od. verwendet wird, zu, alere canes ad venandum, Jagdhunde, Ter.: servos ad remum dare, Liv.: argentum ad vescendum factum, silbernes Tafelgeschirr, Liv. – δ) zur Angabe der Beziehung einer Sache auf eine andere, αα) in bezug, in Hinsicht (im Hinblick) od. Rücksicht auf etw., hinsichtlich, in betreff einer Sache, gegen etw. (s. Schömann Cic. de nat. deor. 2, 155. Schneider Caes. b.G. 5, 1. § 2 u. 3. Fabri Liv. 21, 57, 6. Fritzsche Hor. sat. 2, 2, 108. Heräus Tac. hist. 2, 97, 7. Nägelsb. Stil. § 122, 2), bei Substst., maxima praemia vel ad gratiam vel ad opes vel ad dignitatem, Cic. – nomina ad aliquid (ὀνόματα πρός τι), relative, Quint. – bei Adjj. (s. Wagner Ter. heaut. 370. Meißner Cic. Tusc. 2, 15. Holstein Cic. de fin. 2, 63. Müller Liv. 1, 4, 8. Fabri Liv. 21, 25, 6. Benecke Iustin. 25, 4, 3), insignes ad laudem viri, Cic.: impiger ad labores belli, Cic.: tutus ad ictus, Liv.: modestus ad omnia alia, Ter.: vir ad cetera egregius, Liv.: ad verborum linguaeque certamina rudes, Liv. – bei Verben, non comparandus hic ad illum est, Ter. – elliptisch, non ad Q. Maximi sapientiam, neque ad illius superioris Africani in re gerunda celeritatem, Cic. – ββ) im Verhältnis zu, im Vergleich mit od. zu, gegen, entsprechend (s. Brix Plaut. trin. 873. Halm u. Richter Cic. Verr. 5, 25. Madvig Cic. de fin. 3, 52. Meißner Cic. Tusc. 1, 40. Benecke Cic. Cat. 1, 12. Müller Liv. 1, 8, 4. Fabri Liv. 22, 22, 15), terram ad universi caeli complexum quasi puncti instar obtinere, Cic.: scuta ad amplitudinem corporum parum lata, Liv.: quid ad primum consulatum secundus? Liv.: ellipt. (s. Sorof Cic. de or. 2, 25), at nihil ad nostram hanc, Ter.: quem cognovimus virum bonum et non illitteratum, sed nihil ad Persium, Cic. – u. bei Gegenüberstellung zweier Verhältnisse, quomodo od. sicut od. ut... sic od. ita ad, wie... so zu, quomodo est filius ad patrem, sic est filia ad matrem, Varr. LL. 10. § 41: est ad unum victoriatum denarius, sicut ad alterum victoriatum alter denarius, ibid.: ut unum ad duo, sic decem ad viginti, ibid. § 45: ut unum ad decem, ita decem ad centum, Quint. 5, 11, 34. – b) von der Ausdehnung und Steigerung, bis zu, bis auf, α) übh.: pulli usque ad cinerem ambusti, Plin.: usque ad mortem multare alqm, Ter.: virgis ad necem caedi, Cic. – ad extremum, ad ultimum, »bis aufs äußerste, äußerst = im höchsten Grade«, homo non ad extremum perditus, Liv.: consilium non ad ultimum demens, Liv. – u. ad ultimum, »aufs äußerste = wenn es zum Äußersten kommt«, Curt. – ad summam, »aufs ganze = im ganzen, überhaupt«, Cic. u.a. – β) bei Maßbestimmungen: decoquere ad tertiam partem, Varr.: scrobem ad medium complere, Liv.: ad plenum, Hor. – γ) bei Zahl- u. Geldbestimmungen: αα) zur Angabe des Eintreffens auf eine gewisse Zahl usw., bis zu, bis auf, eadem ad decem homines servabitur portio, Curt. : ad assem perdere, Hor.: ad nummum convenit, Cic.: ad unum (unam) omnes, alle bis auf einen, d.i. bis auf den letzten, Cic.: u. so bl. ad unum, Cic.: ad impuberes, bis auf die Nichtmannbaren, mit Einschluß der N., Caes. – ββ) zur Angabe der Annäherung an eine bestimmte Zahl bis zu, an die, nahe an, nummum Philippeum ad tria milia, Plaut.: quasi talenta ad quindecim, Ter.: (fuimus) omnino ad ducentos, Cic.: cum annos ad L natus esset, Cic. – dah. auch adv. (s. Fabri zu Liv. 22, 41, 2), occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor, Caes.: ad mille ducenti eo proelio ceciderunt, Liv.
2) vom Nebeneinanderstellen u. Nahekommen von Ggstndn.: a) zur Angabe der annähernden Ähnlichkeit (s. Brix Plaut. trin. 873), nach, ut emerem ancillam ad istam faciem, Plaut.: et idem alterum (quaero) ad istanc capitis albitudinem, einen Graukopf etwa wie du, Plaut. – b) zur Angabe dessen, was zu od. bei etw. noch hinzutritt, zu, bei, neben, außer, ad cetera hanc quoque plagam infligere, Cic.: quod ad ius civile pontificium appetatis, Cic.: hoc unum ad pristinam fortunam defuit, Caes. – nisi quid vis od. vultis ad haec, Cic. – dah. ad hoc, ad haec, »zudem, überdies«, Sall. u. Liv.: ad id quod, »außerdem, daß«, usw., Liv.: ad omnia, ad cetera, Liv. (vgl. Hand Tursell. 1, 125). – c) zur Angabe der äußern Veranlassung, auf, bei, auf... hin, infolge, auf Veranlassung, aus, vor (s. Müller Liv. 1, 39, 2. Fabri Liv. 21, 41, 3), respondere, breviter disserere ad alqd, Cic.: ad famam belli novas legiones scribere, Liv.: ad ducis casum perculsa magis, quam irritata est multitudo, Liv. – oder zur Angabe des innern Beweggrundes, auf... hin, aus, vor (s. Müller Liv. 1, 7, 7. Weißenb. Liv. 42, 20, 1), quae (urbes) ad spem diuturnitatis conderentur, Cic.: seu ad metum virium seu ad spem veniae cum dedissent sese, Liv.: in suspensa civitate ad exspectationem novi belli, Liv. – d) zur Angabe der Richtschnur, nach der etw. geschieht, gemäß, nach (Ggstz. contra; s. Drak. Liv. 7, 2, 10. Schuch Apic. 5. § 186), ad perpendiculum, ad lineam, Cic.: ad istorum normam, Cic.: ad voluntatem loqui omnia, Cic.: agere ad praescriptum, Caes.: ad edictum convenire, Liv.: ad manum cantare, ad hunc modum, auf diese W., Cic.: ad tempus, der Zeit gemäß, nach Umständen, Cic. (vgl. unten no. II, 1, b u. no. II, 1, a): ad verbum, wörtlich (zB. ediscere), Cic. (vgl. verbum no. I, b, γ): ad litteras, buchstäblich, Quint. 9, 1, 25.
II) in der Zeit: 1) zur Angabe der Ausdehnung bis zu einem Zeitpunkt: a) mit Rücksicht auf die dazwischen verfließende Zeit, bis zu, bis an, bis auf, bis gegen, ab consulatu eius usque ad extremum tempus, Nep.: ab initio rerum Rom. usque ad P. Mucium pont. max., Cic.: ab hora octava ad vesperum, Cic.: ab condita urbe ad liberatam, Cic. – usque ad hanc aetatem, Cic.: ad summam senectutem, Cic.: ad vesperum, ad multam noctem, Cic.: ad id tempus, ad hoc tempus, bis jetzt, bisher, Caes. u.a.: so auch ad id locorum, Sall. u. Liv.: u. so bl. ad id, ad hoc, Liv. (s. Fabri Liv. 21, 52, 6): ad eum finem, dum etc., Cic.: quem ad finem? wie lange? Cic. – b) mit Rücksicht auf die Währung der Zeit, auf, für, ad exiguum tempus, Cic.: ad breve tempus, Plin.: ad paucos dies, Cic.: ad quoddam tempus, auf einige Zeit, Cic.: ad annos DC, Cic.: ad tempus, auf Zeit (nicht auf die Dauer), Cic.: ad praesens, Cic. 2) zur Angabe des Eintretens auf od. nach einem Zeitpunkt: a) zu, auf, an, nos hic te ad mensem Ianuarium exspectamus, Cic.: te Laodiceae fore ad meum adventum, bei m.A., Cic.: ad aestatem, Liv.: ad lucem, zum Morgen, am Morgen, Cic.: ad meridiem, Plaut.: ad vesperum, Cic.: ad diem dictam, Cic.: ad diem, Cic.: ad (an) eum diem, Tac.: ad praedictum tempus, Liv.: ad tempus, zur gehörigen Zeit, Cic. – ad extremum, Cic. u. Liv., ad ultimum, Liv., ad postremum, Liv., zuletzt (s. Müller Liv. 1, 33, 5). – b) nach, über, binnen (s. Lachm. Lucr. 2, 44. p. 79), ad annum tribunum pl. fore, Cic.: utrum illuc nunc veniam, an ad annos decem, Cic.: ad punctum temporis, binnen od. in einem Augenblick, Cic.: ad Kalendas Graecas, s. Calendae. – / ad seinem Pronom. od. Subst. nachgesetzt, quem ad, Plaut. Bacch. 176: quam ad, Ter. Phorm. 524: quos ad, Cic. de nat. deor. 2, 10: ripam ad Araxis, Tac. ann. 12, 51. – od. zwischen Adjekt. u. Subst., augendam ad invidiam, Tac. ann. 12, 8.
In der Zusammensetzung bezeichnet ad ebenfalls eine Annäherung, heran, herzu, herbei, dabei, zB. accedere, adstare (astare). – dah. auch ein Streben, eine Neigung, s. adamo, ac-crēdo u.a. – eine Vermehrung, hinzu, zB. adicere, assumere.
/ Die Schreibung at (gegen Quint. 1, 7, 5. Prob. inst. (IV) 145, 8 sq. Caper (VII) 95, 14. Vel. Long. (VII) 69, 23. Scaur. de orth. (VII) 154, 15), zB. Corp. inscr. Lat. 1, 1252; 2, 4514; 3, 536 u. 3.; in Handschriften, s. Ribbeck, Prolegg. Verg. p. 396. Wagner Orthogr. Verg. p. 426.

Latin > English

ad ADV :: about (with numerals)
ad ad PREP ACC :: to, up to, towards; near, at; until, on, by; almost; according to; about w/NUM