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Cyrus

Μή, φίλα ψυχά, βίον ἀθάνατον σπεῦδε, τὰν δ' ἔμπρακτον ἄντλει μαχανάν -> Oh! my soul do not aspire to eternal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible
Pindar, Pythian, 3.61f.

English > Greek (Woodhouse)

Κῦρος, ὁ.

of Cyrus, Cyrean, adj.: Κύρειος.

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

Cȳrus: i, m., = Κῦρος.
I The founder of the Persian monarchy, Cic. Leg. 2, 22, 56; id. Brut. 29, 112; id. Div. 1, 23, 46; Hor. C. 2, 2, 17; 3, 29, 27; called Cyrus Major, Lact. 4, 5, 7.—
II Cyrus Minor, a brother of Artaxerxes Mnemon, killed in the battle at Cunaxa, Cic. Div. 1, 25, 52; id. Sen. 17, 59; Nep. Alcib. 9, 5.—
III An architect of the time of Cicero, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 2; id. Att. 2, 3, 2; id. Mil. 17, 46.—Hence,
   B Cȳrēa, ōrum, n., the structures raised by him, Cic. Att. 4, 10, 2.—
The name of a youth, Hor. C. 1. 33, 6; 1, 17, 25.—
A river of Albania, Plin. 6, 9, 10, § 26 sq.; Mel. 3, 5, 6.

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

Cȳrus,¹¹ ī, m. (Κῦρος),
1 Cyrus [fils de Cambyse et de Mandane, roi de Perse] : Cic. Leg. 2, 56 || Cyrus le jeune, frère d’Artaxerce Mnémon : Cic. Div. 1, 52
2 fleuve d’Asie qui se jette dans la mer Caspienne : Plin. 6, 26
3 nom d’un architecte : Cic. Q. 2, 2, 2 || autre personnage du même nom : Hor. O. 1, 17, 25.

Latin > German (Georges)

Cȳrus, ī, m. (Κῦρος), I) der bekannte Stifter des persischen Reichs, Cic. de div. 1, 46. Hor. carm. 2. 2, 17 u.a.: C. maior, Lact. 4, 5, 7. Apul. apol. 23. – II) Cyrus minor, zweiter Sohn des Dareus Ochus, Statthalter von Lydien, Großphrygien und Kappodozien, Freund der Lazedämonier, suchte seinen Bruder Artaxerxes Mnemon vom Throne zu stoßen, fiel aber in der Schlacht bei Kunaxa, Cic. de div. 1, 52; de sen. 17, 59. Nep. Alc. 9, 5. – III) ein zu Ciceros Zeit in Rom lebender Architekt, Cic. ep. 7, 14, 1. – Dav. Cȳrēus, a, um (Κύρειος), von Cyrus herrührend, ea, quae Cyrea sunt, die sonstigen Bauten des Cyrus, Cic. ad Att. 4, 10, 2. – IV) Name eines Jünglings b. Hor. carm. 1, 17, 25 u. 1, 33, 6.

Wikipedia EN

  • Cyrus I of Anshan, i.e. Cyrus I of Persia, King of Anshan in Persia from c. 600 to 580 BC or, according to others, from c. 652 to 600 BC
  • Cyrus the Great, i.e. Cyrus II of Persia (c. 600–530 BC), the founder of the Achaemenid Empire
  • Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis, Persian prince and general
  • Cyrus and John, Christian saints, venerated as martyrs, particularly by the Coptic Church
  • Cyrus of Alexandria (died 642), Melchite patriarch of the Egyptian see of Alexandria in the 7th century, one of the authors of Monothelism, and the last Byzantine prefect of Egypt
  • Cyrus of Panopolis, full name Flavius Taurus Seleucus Cyrus (floruit 426–441), a senior East Roman official, epic poet, philosopher and a lover of Greek arts
  • Cyrus (metal musician), guitarist for Norwegian band Dimmu Borgir

Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš; Hebrew: כּוֹרֶשׁ, Modern: Kōréš, Tiberian: Kōréš; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great, and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire eventually stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans (Bulgaria-Paeonia and Thrace-Macedonia) and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World. The Nabonidus Chronicle notes the change in his title from simply "King of Anshan," a city, to "King of Persia." Assyriologist François Vallat wrote that "When Astyages marched against Cyrus, Cyrus is called 'King of Anshan," but when Cyrus crosses the Tigris on his way to Lydia, he is 'King of Persia.' The coup therefore took place between these two events."

The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted c. 30 years. Cyrus built his empire by first conquering the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire, and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. He led an expedition into Central Asia, which resulted in major campaigns that were described as having brought "into subjection every nation without exception." Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, and was alleged to have died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC. He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to conquer Egypt, Nubia, and Cyrenaica during his short rule.

Translations

af: Kores die Grote; als: Kyros II.; am: ታላቁ ቂሮስ; an: Ciro II lo Gran; ar: كورش الكبير; arz: كورش الكبير; ast: Ciru II el Grande; azb: کوروش; az: II Kir; ba: Бөйөк Кир II; be_x_old: Кір II; be: Кір II Вялікі; bg: Кир II; bn: মহান কুরুশ; br: Kirus II; bs: Kir Veliki; ca: Cir II el Gran; ceb: Ciro ang Bantogan; ce: Сийлахь-воккха Кир II; ckb: کوروشی مەزن; cs: Kýros II.; cv: II-мĕш Кир; cy: Cyrus Fawr; da: Kyros den Store; de: Kyros II.; diq: Kûruşo Gırd; el: Κύρος Β΄ της Περσίας; en: Cyrus the Great; eo: Ciro la 2-a; es: Ciro II el Grande; et: Kyros II; eu: Ziro II.a Handia; fa: کوروش بزرگ; fi: Kyyros II Suuri; fo: Kyros II; fr: Cyrus le Grand; fy: Syrus de Grutte; gan: 居魯士大帝; ga: Cíoras Mór; gcr: Cyrus II; glk: پيله کوروش; gl: Ciro II; hak: Set-lû-sṳ thai-ti; ha: Cyrus the Great; he: כורש; hif: Cyrus the Great; hr: Kir Veliki; hu: II. Kurus perzsa király; hy: Կյուրոս Բ Մեծ; id: Koresh Agung; ilo: Ciro ti Natan-ok; is: Kýros mikli; it: Ciro II di Persia; jam: Sairos di Griet; ja: キュロス2世; ka: კიროს II დიდი; kk: Кир II; ko: 키루스 2세; ku: Kûruşê Mezin; ky: Кир II Улуу; la: Cyrus II; lt: Kyras Didysis; lv: Kīrs Lielais; mg: Kirosy Lehibe; mk: Кир Велики; ml: മഹാനായ സൈറസ്; mr: महान कुरुश; ms: Cyrus Agung; my: မဟာဆိုင်းရပ်စ်; mzn: کوروش کبیر; nl: Cyrus II de Grote; nn: Kyros den store; no: Kyros den store; oc: Cir II lo Gran; pa: ਸੀਪਰਸ ਮਹਾਨ; pl: Cyrus II Wielki; pms: Ciro ël Grand; pnb: سائیرس; ps: کوروش ۲; pt: Ciro II; ro: Cirus al II-lea cel Mare; rue: Кір Великый; ru: Кир II Великий; sco: Cyrus the Great; sh: Kir Veliki; simple: Cyrus the Great; sk: Kýros II.; sl: Kir II.; sq: Kiri i Madh; sr: Кир Велики; sv: Kyros II; sw: Koreshi Mkuu; ta: சைரசு; te: సైరస్ ది గ్రేట్; tg: Куруши Кабир; th: พระเจ้าไซรัสมหาราช; tl: Dakilang Ciro; tr: II. Kiros; tt: Kir II Böyek; uk: Кир Великий; ur: کورش اعظم; uz: Kir II Buyuk; vep: Kir II Sur'; vi: Cyrus Đại đế; war: Ciro nga Harangdon; wuu: 居鲁士二世; xmf: კიროს II დიდი; yi: כורש; za: Gawqlujsw daihdaeq; zh_classical: 居魯士大帝; zh_min_nan: Cyrus 2-sè; zh_yue: 居魯士大帝; zh: 居鲁士二世