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psykter

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psykter = ψυκτήρ

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Wikipedia EN

Example of a psykter (Louvre)

A psykter (in Greek ψυκτήρ "cooler") is a type of Greek vase that is characterized by a bulbous body set on a high, narrow foot. It was used as a wine cooler, and specifically as part of the elite sympotic set in the ancient Greek symposium. The psykter, as distinct from other coolers, is a vase which has a mushroom-shaped body, and was produced for only a short period of time during the late-sixth to mid-fifth centuries, with almost all of this type dating to between 520 and 480 BCE.

The fact of its brevity combined with there being a number of simpler methods of cooling wine suggests that this shape was merely a fad. It is possible that it came about as a response to avoiding mixing contaminated snow-ice directly in wine, as it was known that this could cause illness, but this is unlikely as the alcohol in wine has useful sterilizing properties. Even proportionately to other wine utensils of its time it is comparatively rare, with few examples being found. Although the psykter did have its specific function, nevertheless, it was almost certainly something of a whimsical device, an objet du jour, which will have given the symposion’s guests some aesthetic titillation and the host kudos for good taste. Because the process of cooling wine could be achieved in a number of other ways, none of which required the psykter, its redundancy appears to have quickly made it obsolete.

Typically, wine was cooled by the addition of chilled water or snow-ice to wine in a krater, and that method pre-dated and outlasted the psykter. Less certain is precisely how it was used. It appears that it was designed to float in the krater, and to either contain wine which became chilled as it floated in the ice-cooled water, or instead the psykter was filled with ice which chilled the wine in which it floated. With regards to what effect each of these options would have on the wine’s temperature it is possible to arrive at the following conclusions. If the wine was to be chilled as is common today, to about 12 °C, then we would expect to see the wine in the krater and the coolant in the psykter. This is because the wine would have ice on one side (the inside) and room temperature on the other side (the outside of the krater). This would maintain the temperature of the wine part way between room temperature and 0 °C, though, it would be closer to room temperature than to 0 °C because the outer surface area of the wine is greater than the inner surface area. However, if the wine was to be cooled to near 0 °C, then the only possible option is to put the ice in the krater and the wine in the psykter, as in this case the wine is almost fully enclosed by ice. Whilst neither one is conclusive, the first option is appealing because it does not alter the ancient Greek tradition of wine being mixed in the krater.

Whilst the ancient sources do write of people drinking wine directly from a psykter, it is not clear whether they refer to the mushroom-shaped psykter specifically. Additionally, it would be considerably less costly to fill the psykter with ice rather than the krater. If the coolant were to be pre-chilled water then either way would be economical, although the cooling effect of chilled water, as opposed to ice, in the psykter would be minimal.

Wikipedia EL

Ο ψυκτήρας στην αρχαία ελληνική κεραμική είναι ένα αγγείο σε σχήμα μανιταριού, κούφιο μέχρι την επίπεδη βάση του, που χρησιμοποιούνταν για την ψύξη του κρασιού. Τοποθετούνταν μέσα σε ένα μεγαλύτερο αγγείο, συνήθως ένα καλυκωτό κρατήρα, που περιείχε δροσερό νερό. Διάφορα σχήματα αγγείων για την ψύξη του κρασιού χρησιμοποιήθηκαν και παλιότερα. Ψυκτήρες όμως του συγκεκριμένου σχήματος πρωτοκατασκευάστηκαν από τους Πρωτοπόρους του ερυθρόμορφου ρυθμού γύρω στο 520 π.Χ., προφανώς σε συνδυασμό με τον καλυκωτό κρατήρα, σχήμα που πρωτοχρησιμοποίησε ο όψιμος Εξηκίας γύρω στο 530 π.Χ. και καθιέρωσε λίγο αργότερα ο Ευφρόνιος. Η χρήση ψυκτήρων δεν κράτησε περισσότερο από δυο γενιές: Από το 460 π.Χ. περίπου και μετά σταματάει τόσο η παραγωγή ψυκτήρων από τους αγγειοπλάστες όσο και η απεικόνισή τους στην αγγειογραφία.

Wikipedia DE

Als Psykter (altgriechisch ψυκτήρ psyktḗr) bezeichnet man einen Gefäßtyp, der in attischen Werkstätten in der zweiten Hälfte des 6. Jh. v. Chr. zusammen mit dem Kelchkrater entwickelt wurde und in erster Linie beim Symposion Verwendung fand.

Der Psykter hat eine pilzähnliche Form sowie einen tiefen, zylindrischen und hohlen Fuß und wurde in einem Stück gefertigt. Er wurde zusammen mit dem Kelchkrater verwendet: Eines der beiden Gefäße enthielt zur Kühlung Schnee oder Eiswasser, im anderen befand sich der noch ungemischte Wein. Jedoch ist heute nicht ganz sicher, welches Gefäß den Wein und welches das Kühlmittel aufnahm. Vermutlich wurde der Psykter in den Krater eingesetzt und schwamm auf der Flüssigkeit. Auch bildliche Darstellungen in Vasenmalereien zeigen den Psykter meist im Krater, der offensichtlich die Kühlmasse enthielt, während aus ersterem Behälter der Wein geschöpft wurde. Allerdings gibt es auch Forscher, die eine umgekehrte Verwendung annehmen, obwohl diese den Kühleffekt verlangsamt hätte. Davon unabhängig konnte der Psykter aufgrund seines Standfußes auch eigenständig aufgestellt werden.

Die manchmal auch flachbauchigen Gefäße waren meistens henkellos. Es gab jedoch auch eine Variante mit zwei kleinen Griffen, durch die eine Kordel geführt wurde, mit der man den Psykter aus dem Krater heben konnte. Ausschließlich die Exemplare mit Griffen hatten außerdem einen Deckel. Die meisten Exemplare sind rotfigurig.

Die Bezeichnung Psykter stammt zwar aus der Antike, ist jedoch nicht im Zusammenhang mit diesem Gefäßtyp belegt. Diese Verbindung wurde erst durch die Forschung hergestellt, da sich der griechische Begriff ψυκτήρ wohl von dem Verb ψύχειν psýchein, deutsch ‚kühlen‘, herleitet.

Wikipedia ES

Psictero/a​ o psicter​ (en griego, ψυκτήρ: "enfriador") es un vaso de la cerámica griega similar a una seta, hueco en su pie y a veces provisto de tapadera, utilizado para enfriar el vino introduciéndolo dentro de una crátera con agua fría o hielo.

Wikipedia FR

Un psykter est un vase en céramique utilisé dans la Grèce antique pour rafraichir le vin. Le psykter était placé au centre d'un cratère. On ne sait pas s'il contenait le vin et le cratère de l'eau froide ou de la glace, ou bien si le dispositif était inverse.

Le psykter est un vase rare. Sa production aurait débuté vers le milieu du vie siècle avant notre ère et s'arrête au plus tard au milieu du ve siècle. Seuls quelques exemplaires ont été retrouvés, souvent des vases de type céramique à figures noires dont les thèmes sont souvent liés au vin, comme un psykter conservé à Londres et qui montre des satyres.

Wikipedia IT

Lo psyktèr (ψυκτήρ, plurale ψυκτῆρες, psyktḕres) è un tipo di vaso greco caratterizzato da un corpo bulboso posizionato sopra un piede alto e stretto che veniva usato per refrigerare il vino. Il nome è antico, derivato dalla funzione del vaso e applicato a ogni tipologia vascolare similmente utilizzata. Sembra essere stato inventato verso la fine del VI secolo a.C., nel periodo di formazione dello stile a figure rosse. Uno dei più antichi psyktèr conosciuti reca la firma del vasaio Nicostene, e se ne hanno esempi fino alla metà del V secolo a.C.

La forma particolare consentiva al vaso di galleggiare all'interno del cratere riempito di liquido o di reggersi autonomamente sul proprio piede. Esistono rappresentazioni dipinte che mostrano questo vaso immerso in crateri (ad esempio l'oinochoe al Museo archeologico nazionale di Atene 1045) e la decorazione degli psyktèr sembra essere eseguita in funzione dell'utilizzo del vaso che ne avrebbe consentito la vista solo per metà (il piede e una striscia nella parte inferiore del corpo sono di colore uniforme).

Non è chiaro se fosse lo psyktèr a contenere il vino e il cratere ghiaccio o acqua fredda, o viceversa. Esistono esemplari di vasi aventi la stessa funzione che, in luogo dell'utilizzo di due vasi, sono dotati di una propria camera interna e possono avere una conformazione simile al cratere o simile all'anfora (prevalentemente a collo distinto).

Wikipedia PT

Psíctere ou Psícter (em latim: ψυκτήρ; romaniz.: Psyctér) era um vaso usado para esfriar vinhos, o recipiente especialmente adaptado para esta operação era algumas vezes feito de bronze ou prata.

Uma peça de cerâmica está preservada no Museu de Antiguidades de Copenhague. Consiste de um vaso fundo para segurar o gelo, que é fixado dentro de outro para segurar o vinho. O vinho era derramado pelo topo, desse modo o vaso com gelo é rodeado e resfria o vinho por contato.

O tamanho do recipiente variava bastante. Continha desde 2 quartos até um grande número de galões. Às vezes era dado como um prêmio para os vencedores dos jogos de cottabos.

Wikipedia RU

Псиктер (др.-греч. ψυκτήρ, лат. Psykter), иначе бавкалид — древнегреческий керамический сосуд, по форме напоминающий гриб, получил распространение в Аттике во второй половине VI в. до н. э. Псиктер использовался вместе с кубковым кратером. Один из этих сосудов предназначался для хранения снега или ледяной воды, в другой наливалось неразбавленное вино. До настоящего времени не сохранилось информации, какой из сосудов предназначен для воды, а какой — для вина. Псиктер помещался в жидкость, находящуюся в кратере. Псиктеры вместе с кубкообразными кратерами использовались на симпосиях.