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ὕπαιθρος

Ὄττω τις ἔραται -> Whatever one loves best | Whom you desire most
Sappho
Full diacritics: ὕπαιθρος Medium diacritics: ὕπαιθρος Low diacritics: ύπαιθρος Capitals: ΥΠΑΙΘΡΟΣ
Transliteration A: hýpaithros Transliteration B: hypaithros Transliteration C: ypaithros Beta Code: u(/paiqros

English (LSJ)

ὕπαιθρον, = foreg., [ κοίτη ] Hp.Acut.45; ἱππεῖς καὶ στρατιῶται, i.e. encamped, opp. κάτοικοι, OGI229.14 (Smyrna, iii B.C.);

   A ἔδοξεν Ἀθηναίων τοῖς τεταγμένοις ἐν Ἐλευσῖνι . . καὶ τοῖς ὑπαίθροις IG22.1304.3 (iii B.C.); παραχειμασία Plb.3.87.2; δυνάμεις Id.1.82.14, cf. PCair.Zen.545.5 (iii B.C.), PMich.Zen.90.3 (iii B.C.), PTeb.722.11 (ii B.C.); τὰ κτήνη μου ὕ. ἐστιν PEnteux.11.2 (iii B.C.); ἀγῶνες Phld.Rh.2.108S.; πόλεμοι D.H.6.22; ὕπαιθρον ὕλην λεῖπε Babr.12.14.    2 public, open, ὑ. πράξεσι Plu.Cat.Ma.16; παραφροσύνην ὕ. Id.Agis2.    II as Subst., τό ὕπαιθρον, open enclosure, IG22.1035.47, Luc.Symp.20; ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ = in the open air, Antipho 5.11, X.Mem.2.1.6, Oec.7.19: metaph., εἰς ὕπαιθρον = into the public view, into the daylight, πρῶτον εἰς ὕπαιθρον ἐξεληλυθώς = this being his first campaign (of a youth), Pib.10.3.4; εἰς ὕ. ἕλκειν τινά Plu.2.501d; τὴν αὑτῶν ἀμαθίαν εἰς ὕ. ἄγουσι Erot.Prooem.    2 in military language, from Plb. downwds., τὰ ὕπαιθρα the field, the open country, opp. fortified places, τῶν ὑπαίθρων ἀντιποιεῖσθαι 1.12.4, 1.30.6; μάχεσθαι ἐν τοῖς ὑπαίθροις 18.3.4; ἐκχωρεῖν τῶν ὑπαίθρων = retire from the open country and shut themselves up in the towns, 9.3.6; ἡ ἐν ὑπαίθροις οἰκονομία 6.12.5.    3 ἡ ὕπαιθρος sc. ὕπαιθρος γῆ = τὰ ὕπαιθρα, the field, D.H.8.63, 9.6.    4 open to the sky, Lat. hypaethros, hypaethrus, aedificia, ambulationes, Vitr.1.2.5, 5.9.5; hypaethros (sc. ναός), a temple with an open skylight, Id.3.2.1. This form is not used by Att. writers except in the phrase ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ; the form employed by them in Adj. sense is always ὑπαίθριος; v. X.Oec.7.20, where αἱ ἐν τῷ ὑπαίθρῳ ἐργασίαι are synon. with ὑπαίθρια ἔργα.

Greek (Liddell-Scott)

ὕπαιθρος: -ον, = τῷ προηγ., ὕπ. εὐνὴ Ἱππ. περὶ Διαίτ. Ὀξ. 391· στρατιῶται Συλλ. Ἐπιγρ. 3137. 14· παραχειμασία Πολύβ. 3. 8, 2· δυνάμεις ὁ αὐτ. 1. 82, 14 πόλεμοι Διον. Ἁλ. 6. 22· ὕπαιθρον ὕλην λεῖπε Βάβριος 12. 14 Boisson. ΙΙ. ὡς οὐσιαστ., ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ sub Dio, ἔξω εἰς τὸ ὕπαιθρον, Ἀντιφῶν 130. 29, Ξενοφ. Ἀπομν. 2. 1, 6, Οἰκ. 7. 19· σπανίως ἐν τῇ ὀνομ. τὸ ὕπ. τῆς αὐλῆς Λουκ. Συμπ. 20 2) ἐν στριατιωτικῇ γλώσσῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ Πολυβ. καὶ ἑξῆς, τὰ ὕπαιθρα, ἡ ἀναπεπταμένη χώρα, κατ’ ἀντίθεσιν πρὸς τὰ ὠχυρωμένα μέρη, τῶν ὑπ. κρατεῖν, ἀντιποιεῖσθαι 1. 12, 4., 40 6· μάχεσθαι ἐν τοῖς ὑπαίθροις 17. 3, 4· τῶν ὑπ. ἐκχωρῶ, ἀποσύρομαι ἐκ τῆς ὑπαίθρου χώρας καὶ κατακλείομαι ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν, 9. 3, 6· ἡ ἐν ὑπαίθροις οἰκονομία 6. 12, 5· σπανίως ἐν τῷ ἑνικῷ εἰς ὕπαιθρον ἐξελθεῖν, ἐξελθεῖν εἰς πεδίον μάχης, 10. 3, 4. 3) ἡ ὕπαιθρος (ἐξυπ. γῆ), = τὰ ὕπαιθρα, τὸ πεδίον, οἱ ἀγροί, Διον. Ἁλ. 8. 63, 9. 6. 4) ἀνοικτός, ἄνευ ὀροφῆς ἢ στέγης, aedificia, ambula iores hyp., Vitruv. 1. 2 § 27., 5. 9 § 67 - hypaethros (δηλ. ναός), ὁ ἄνευ στέγης, ἀνοικτὸς ἄνωθεν, ὁ αὐτ. 3. 1 § 22· - Ὁ τύπος οὗτος δὲν ἦτο ἐν χρήσει παρὰ τοῖς Ἀττ. εἰ μὴ μόνον ἐν τῇ φράσει ἐν ὑπαίθρω· ὁ δὲ τύπος ὁ παρ’ αὐτοῖς ἐν χρήσει ὡς ἐπίθ. εἶναι ἀεὶ ὑπαίθριος· ἴδε Ξεν. Οἰκ. 7, 20, ἔνθα αἱ ἐν [τῷ] ὑπαίθρῳ ἐργασίαι εἶναι συνώνυμον τῷ ὑπαίθρια ἔργα.

French (Bailly abrégé)

ος, ον :
qui est ou se fait à l'air libre, en plein air, en plein champ : ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ, ἐν τῷ ὑπαίθρῳ XÉN en plein air ; τὸ ὕπαιθρον τῆς αὐλῆς LUC l’exposition de la cour en plein air.
Étymologie: ὑπό, αἴθρα.

Wikipedia FR

hypèthre: Se dit d'un édifice n'étant pas couvert du tout ou en partie d'un toit. (En général) un temple dont la cella est à ciel ouvert. (Par extension) ce terme qualifie un édifice dont le centre est à ciel ouvert, ou une ouverture ajourée d'un édifice grec ou romain (en général au-dessus d'une porte).

Greek Monotonic

ὕπαιθρος: -ον,
1. = το προηγ.· ὕπαιθρον, τό, ως ουσ., ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ, sub Dio, στο ύπαιθρο, σε Ξεν.
2. τὰ ὕπαιθρα, πεδίο μάχης, περιοχή εκτός των τειχών, μη οχυρωμένη, σε Πολύβ.

Russian (Dvoretsky)

ὕπαιθρος:
II ἡ (sc. γῆ) открытое место, чистое поле Babr., Sext. = ὑπαίθριος.

Middle Liddell

ον, ου, τό,
1. as Subst., ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ, sub Dio, in the open air, Xen.
2. τὰ ὕπαιθρα, the field, the open country, Polyb.

Wikipedia EN

In classical architecture, hypaethral describes an ancient temple with no roof. (From the Latin hypaethrus, from Ancient Greek ὕπαιθρος hupaithros ὑπό hupo- "under" and αἰθήρ aither "sky, air".) It was described by the Roman architect Vitruvius in his treatise On Architecture, written for the emperor Caesar Augustus probably about 15 BC.

However, at the time Vitruvius wrote (c. 25 AD) the cella of this temple was unroofed, because the columns which had been provided to carry, at all events, part of the ceiling and roof had been taken away by Sulla in 80 BC. The decastyle temple of Apollo Didymaeus near Miletus was, according to Strabo (c. 50 BC), unroofed, on account of the vastness of its cella, in which precious groves of laurel bushes were planted.

Temple of Aphaia in Aegina

Apart from these two examples, the references in various writers to an opening of some kind in the roofs of temples dedicated to particular deities, and the statement of Vitruvius, which was doubtless based on the writings of Greek authors, that in decastyle or large temples the centre was open to the sky and without a roof (medium autem sub diva est sine tecto), render the existence of the hypaethros probable in some cases; and therefore C. R. Cockerell's discovery in the temple at Aegina of two fragments of a coping-stone, in which there were sinkings on one side to receive the tiles and covering tiles, has been of great importance in the discussion of this subject. In the conjectural restoration of the opaion or opening in the roof shown in Cockerell's drawing, it has been made needlessly large, having an area of about one quarter of the superficial area of the cella between the columns, and since in the Pantheon at Rome the relative proportions of the central opening in the dome and the area of the rotunda are 1:22, and the light there is ample, in the clearer atmosphere of Greece it might have been less. The larger the opening, the more conspicuous would be the notch in the roof which is so greatly objected to; in this respect, Jacques Hittorf would seem to be nearer the truth when, in his conjectural restoration of Temple R at Selinus, he shows an opaion about half the relative size shown in Cockerell's of that at Aegina, the coping on the side elevation being much less noticeable.

The problem was apparently solved in another way at Bassae, where, in the excavations of the temple of Apollo by Cockerell and Baron Hailer von Hallerstein, three marble tiles were found with pierced openings in them about 18 inches by 10 in.; five of these pierced tiles on either side would have amply lighted the interior of the cella, and the amount of rain passing through (a serious element to be considered in a country where torrential rains occasionally fall) would not be very great or more than could be retained to dry up in the ceila sunk pavement. In favor of both these methods of lighting, the interior of the cella, the sarcophagus tomb at Cyrene, about 20 feet (6.1 m) long, carved in imitation of a temple, has been adduced, because, on the tor of the roof and in its centre, there is a raised coping, and a similar feature is found on a tomb found near Delos; an example from Crete now in the British Museum shows a pierced tile on each side of the roof, and a large number of pierced tiles have been found in Pompeii, some of them surrounded with a rim identical with that of the marble tiles at Bassae.

Wikipedia DE

Als Hypäthraltempel (griechisch ὑπαίθριος „unter freiem Himmel“) bezeichnet man einen Tempel, dessen Cella – beim Hypäthraltempel Sekos genannt – nicht überdacht war. Ein frühes Beispiel hierfür war der archaische Dipteros der Artemis von Ephesos, der wohl als Hypaithros konzipiert war.

Der Sekos konnte wie ein Innenhof ausgebildet sein, in dem frei das Adyton stand, das selbst in der Gestalt eines Tempels konstruiert sein konnte (z. B. Didyma, Apollon-Tempel). Zugänglich war der Sekos durch die überdachte Vorhalle, den Pronaos. In Didyma steigerte man Wirkung und Dramatik des riesigen Sekos durch eine 15 Meter breite, von Wangen gefasste Freitreppe mit 24 Stufen, die vom überdachten Pronaos in den abgesenkten 22 Meter breiten, 54 Meter langen und über 25 Meter hohen Innenhof führte, dessen Wände durch Pilaster auf einem hohen Sockel gegliedert waren. In einem Sekos dieser Größe hätte selbst der stattliche Athenatempel von Tegea Platz gefunden.

Wikipedia ES

Hipetro, hípetro o hypetros son términos utilizados para describir un edificio o un espacio arquitectónico que no está cubierto por un techo.

Proviene del griego hypaethros, un tipo de templo griego cuya cella queda a cielo abierto y, por extensión, cualquier edificio o parte del mismo sin techo.

En la arquitectura egipcia monumental, la «sala hipetra» solía estar rodeada de columnas, a manera de patio porticado. Era el espacio arquitectónico descubierto del templo egipcio, siendo inmediatamente posterior a los pilonos de la entrada y anterior a las «salas hipóstilas» cubiertas, donde se hallaba la cella que guardaba la imagen de la divinidad. Las primeras hipetras se construyeron en los templos anexos de los complejos de las pirámides de Keops y Micerino. Esta disposición influyó en el diseño de los megarones micénicos.

También se construyeron templos sin techo en la India, en los estados de Orissa, Madhya Pradesh y Uttar Pradesh en los silgos VIII al XI. Estos templos hipetros de planta redonda o rectangular fueron dedicados a las diosas llamadas Yoginis (Yogini Cult and Teples, Vidya Dehejia; templos de Yoginis en la India, Stella Dupuis).

Wikipedia IT

Ipètro (dal greco ὕπαιθρος: da υπό, sotto e αίθρα, cielo, letteralmente 'a cielo aperto', privo di copertura) è la conformazione particolare di un tipo di templi antichi circondati da una peristasi di colonne, ma privo di copertura sulla parte centrale (cella o navata centrale). Estensivamente l'aggettivo ipetro può riferirsi ad un edificio totalmente o parzialmente scoperto.

Il suo utilizzo non è frequente ed è generalmente legato a dimensioni talmente colossali da rendere impossibile la realizzazione della struttura lignea del tetto. Risulta difficile, dalle risultanze archeologiche, identificare con certezza esempi di tale tipologia. Tuttavia il tempio ipetro (o ipetrale) è ricordato da Vitruvio nel De architectura, dove tra l'altro si dice che il cortile (ovviamente a cielo aperto) posto al centro della cella presentava sui quattro lati due ordini sovrapposti di colonne («columnas in altitudine duplices»).

Wikipedia RU

Гипефр (греч. ὕπαιθρος — находящийся под открытым небом, от греч. ὑπό — под и греч. αἰθήρ — воздух) — разновидность архитектуры (чаще всего храмовой) в древней Греции: здание, в крыше которого устроено посередине отверстие, род более или менее обширного открытого люка, служившего для пропуска света внутрь сооружения. Подобным отверстием снабжались преимущественно храмы значительного размера — например, храм Аполлона Эпикурейского близ Фигалии в Аркадии, Храм Посейдона в Пестуме, афинский Парфенон, храм Зевса в Олимпии и др. Отверстие обыкновенно подпиралось изнутри двойным рядом колонн, соединённых между собой горизонтальными балками. Гипефром называлось также решётчатое окно в верхней части главной входной двери в храм, пропускающее в него воздух и отчасти свет, а вместе с тем придающее большую красоту и величественность внешнему виду двери.