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proelium

Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ -> The fool laughs even when there's nothing to laugh at
Menander

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

proelĭum: (prael-), ii, n. etym. dub.; perh. for provilium, pro-dvilium; cf. duellum (bellum),
I a battle, combat (class.; syn.: pugna, dimicatio).
I Lit.: induperatores pugnare ac proelia obire, Lucr. 4, 967: non proeliis, neque acie bellum gerere, Sall. J. 54, 5: exitus proeliorum, Cic. Fam. 6, 4, 1: proelium facere, to engage, id. Tusc. 4, 19, 43: inire, Liv. 25, 38: committere cum aliquo, Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: redintegrare, Caes. B. G. 1, 25: restituere, id. ib. 53: conficere, Hirt. B. G. 8, 28: miscere, Prop. 4 (5), 1, 28: proelio dimicare cum hoste, Cic. N. D. 2, 2, 6: proeliis decertare, id. Prov. Cons. 13, 33: proelium sumere, to join battle, engage, Tac. H. 2, 42: singulare, single combat, Aus. Per. Iliad. 7: Punica passi proelia, the wars with Carthage, Juv. 14, 162.—
   B Transf.
   1    Of animals (poet.): proelia dant cervi, Verg. G. 3, 265: (taurorum), id. ib. 3, 220; cf. Hor. C. 3, 20, 4; 3, 13, 5.—
   2    Of inanimate subjects (poet.): ventorum proelia, Verg. G. 1, 318.—
   3    A warrior: Colchis flagrantes adamantina sub juga tauros Egit et armigera proelia sevit humo, Prop. 3, 11 (4, 10), 10: trepidum si Martis operti agricolam infandis condentem proelia sulcis expediam, Stat. Th. 1, 8.—
II Trop.
   A Contest, strife (class.): proelia te meā causā sustinere, Cic. Fam. 9, 11, 2: committere proelia voce, Ov. M. 5, 307; id. Am. 1, 8, 96.—Humorously, of a struggle with food and drink: in eo uterque proelio potabimus, Plaut. Men. 1, 3, 3: sed quid cessamus proelium committere? id. Pers. 1, 3, 32.—
   B In mal. part., Prop. 2, 1, 45: veneris, App. M. 5, p. 168, 6.

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

prœlĭum,⁶ ĭī, n., combat, bataille : obire Lucr. 4, 967 ; facere Cic. Tusc. 4, 43 ; committere cum aliquo Cic. Div. 1, 77 ; sumere Tac. H. 2, 42, livrer bataille, engager le combat, en venir aux mains avec qqn, combattre ; prœlio dimicare cum aliquo Cic. Nat. 2, 6, se mesurer avec qqn ; v. decertare || [en parl. des animaux] : Virg. G. 3, 265 ; des vents] Virg. G. 1, 318 || [poét.] combattants, guerriers : Prop. 3, 11, 10 ; Stat. Th. 1, 8 || [fig.] combat, lutte : prœlia mea causa sustinere Cic. Fam. 9, 11, 2, soutenir des combats en ma faveur (pour moi) ; [en poésie érotique] Prop. 2, 1, 45.

Latin > German (Georges)

proelium, iī, n., der Kampf, I) eig. u. übtr.: a) eig., das Treffen, Gefecht, die Schlacht, locus proelii, Tac.: pr. equestre, Caes., equestre ac pedestre, Suet.: pr. terrestre, navale, Nep.: proelia parvula, Caes.: proelium anceps, Liv.: singulare, Zweikampf, Auson.: proeliorum periti rectores, Amm.: proelium audere, Tac.: proelium committere, s. com-mittono. II, 1, a: pr. conserere, Liv.: pr. conferre, Liv.: pr. facere, Cic., Sall. u.a.: proelium agere, Liv., od. pugnare, Sall.: pr. miscere, Prop.: proelio decertare, Cic., dimicare, Iustin.: proelium accendere, Liv.: pr. edere, Liv.: pr. ciēre, Liv.: pr. incipere, Liv.: pr. redintegrare, Caes.: pr. renovare, restituere, Liv.: pr. extrahere prope ad noctem, Liv.: pr. per diem totum infeliciter tolerare, Liv.: proelium depugnare (auskämpfen), Plaut.: pr. profligare, Liv.: pr. sedare, Liv.: pr. dirimere, Liv.: proelium finire, Vopisc.: proelio abstinere, Caes. u. Lact.: milites in proelium ducere, Liv.: inducere primi agminis cohortes in proelium, Liv.: hostem elicere ad proelium non posse, Liv.: ire in proelium, Liv.: proelium inire, Liv.: proelium inire cum alqo (v. Zweikampfe), Liv.: proelium obire, Apul.: proelium egredi, Iustin.: proelio excedere, Sall.: proeliis secundis uti, Cic. – b) übtr., vom Wortkampfe, proelia meā causā sustinere (bestehen), Cic. ep. 9, 11, 2: scherzh. v. Gefechte gegen die Speisen, sed quid cessamus proelium committere, einzuhauen, Plaut. Pers. 112; vgl. Plaut. Men. 185. – v. Kampfe der Winde, Verg. georg. 1, 318. – II) meton.: 1) der Kampf = der Krieg, zB. eventus proelii, Iustin. 2, 6, 16: proelium Marcomanicum, Vopisc. Aur. 21, 5: adversum Siciliae proelium, Iustin. 5, 1, 4: id proelium, quod Camilli ductu gestum est, Frontin. 2, 6, 1: proelium reparare, Iustin. 3, 6, 7. – 2) proelia, die Kämpfer, Krieger, armigera proelia sevit humo, Prop. 3, 11, 10.

Latin > English

proelium proeli(i) N N :: battle/fight/bout/conflict/dispute; armed/hostile encounter; contest of strength