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λᾶας

Ὁ δ' ἀνεξέταστος βίος οὐ βιωτὸς ἀνθρώπῳ -> The unexamined life is not worth living
Plato, Apology of Socrates 38a
Full diacritics: λᾶας Medium diacritics: λᾶας Low diacritics: λάας Capitals: ΛΑΑΣ
Transliteration A: lâas Transliteration B: laas Transliteration C: laas Beta Code: la=as

English (LSJ)

ὁ (also ἡ, AP7.491 (Mnasalc.), Nic.Th.45), acc. λᾶαν (

   A λᾶα Call.Fr.104), gen. and dat. λᾶος, λᾶι: dual λᾶε: pl. λᾶες APl. c., gen. λάων, dat. λάεσι, Ep. λάεσσι, all which forms occur in Hom., exc. λάεσι, which appears in Epigr.Gr.455.2 (Bostra), IG14.499 (Catana): —also masc. λᾶος, ὁ λᾶο (sic) ὅδε Inscr.Cypr.93 H.; acc. λᾶον Puchstein Epigr.Gr.p.76 (Memphis), Riv.Fil.56.224 (Cyrene); gen. λάου S.OC196 (lyr.) codd. (cf. Hdn.Gr.1.109), Leg.Gort.10.36; acc. pl. λάους Hes.Fr.115, Simon. ap. Sch.Il.Oxy.1087.40; dat. λάϋς ( = λάοις) Corinn. Supp.1.33 (fem.), cf. Serv.ad Virg. G.1.63:—poet. Noun (also in dialects, v. supr.), stone, esp. of stones thrown by warriors, ὅσον τ' ἐπὶ λᾶαν ἵησιν Il.3.12, cf. 7.268, al.; λ. ἀναιδής, of the stone of Sisyphus, Od.11.598; ὅς μιν λᾶαν θῆκε turned her into stone, 13.163, cf. Il. 2.319.

Greek (Liddell-Scott)

λᾶας: ὁ, (ὡσαύτως ἡ, Νικ. Θηρ. 45), αἰτ. λᾶαν, γεν. καὶ δοτ. λᾶος, λᾶϊ· δυϊκὸν λᾶε· πληθ., γεν. λάων, δοτ. λάεσι, Ἐπικ. λάεσσι, οἱ τύποι οὗτοι εὕρηνται ἅπαντες παρ’ Ὁμήρ. πλὴν τοῦ λάεσι, ὅστις φαίνεται ἐν Συλλ. Ἐπιγρ. 4650, 5724· παρ’ Ἀττ. ὡσαύτως συνῃρ. λᾶς, αἰτ. λᾶν, ἀλλὰ λᾶα Καλλ. Ἀποσπ. 104· εὕρηται καὶ γενική: λάου Σοφ. Ο. Κ. 196 (ὡς εἰ τὸ λᾶας ἦτο πρωτόκλιτον). Ποιητ. ὄνομα, λίθος, μάλιστα ἐπὶ λίθων οὓς ἔρριπτον οἱ πολεμισταί, ὅσσον τ’ ἐπὶ λᾶας ἵησιν Ἰλ. Γ. 12, πρβλ. Ζ. 268, κ. ἀλλ.· ὃς λᾶας ἀναιδής, ἐπὶ τοῦ λίθου τοῦ Σισύφου, Ὀδ. Λ. 598· μιν λᾶαν ἔθηκεν, μετέβαλεν αὐτὴν εἰς λίθον, Ν. 163, πρβλ. Ἰλ. Ν. 319. (Ὁ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τύπος ἦτο λᾶϝ-ας, πρβλ. λεὺς (ὅ ἐστι λέϝς)· λεύω, λεύσιμος, Λατ. lautumiae λατομίαι)· πρβλ. ὡσαύτως λαῖαι, λᾶϊγξ· ἀλλὰ σχέσις ἐτυμολογικὴ πρὸς τὸ λίθος, ἢ τὸ Λατ. lap-is φαίνεται ἀδύνατος).

French (Bailly abrégé)

(ὁ, ἡ)
p. contr. λᾶς, gén. λάαος-λᾶος, dat. λᾶϊ, acc. λᾶαν-λᾶν;
plur. λᾶες, λάων, λάεσι, λᾶας ; duel λᾶε;
1 pierre en gén.
2 rocher, quartier de roc.
Étymologie: cf. λεῦς, λεύω, λεύσιμος, lat. lautumiae, λατομίαι.

English (Autenrieth)

λᾶος, dat. λᾶι, acc. λᾶαν, du. λᾶε, pl. gen. λάων, dat. λάεσσι: stone.

Greek Monotonic

λᾶας: ὁ, αιτ. λᾶαν, γεν. και δοτ. λᾶος, λᾶι· δυϊκ. λᾶε· πληθ., γεν. λάων, δοτ. λάεσι, Επικ. λάεσσι· στην Αττ. επίσης συνηρ. λᾶς, αιτ. λᾶν· γεν. λάου, σε Σοφ. (όπως το λᾶας να ήταν πρωτόκλιτο)· Λατ. lapis, λίθος, σε Όμηρ., κ.λπ.

Russian (Dvoretsky)

λᾶας: стяж. λᾶς ὁ (gen. λάαος, λᾶος и λάου, dat. λᾶϊ, acc. λᾶαν, λᾶν и λᾶα; pl.: nom. λᾶες, gen. λάων, dat. λάεσι(ν) и λάεσσιν, acc. λᾶας; dual. λᾶε) камень, каменная глыба Hom., Eur., Anth.

Etymological

Grammatical information: m. (late also f.),
Meaning: stone; as GN (Laconia) Λα̃ς and Λᾶ (Th., Paus., St.Byz. a.o.; acc. Λάαν Β 585).
Other forms: gen. etc. λα̃-ος, , -αν ( Call.), pl. λᾶ-ες etc. (Il.); also as ο-stem λᾶος, -ου etc. (Hes.Fr. 115[?], S., Cyrene, Gortyn; details in Schwyzer 578),
Dialectal forms: Myc. raeja \/lah-eja\/ and Cypr. laos show that the word did not have a -w-.
Compounds: Compp., e. g. λα-τόμος (beside uncontracted or restored λαο-) stone-cutter with λατομ-ίαι quarry (= Lat. lātomiae beside lautumiae < *λαο-; s.W.-Hofmann s. v.), Arg., Syracus., hell. (Ruijgh L'élém. ach. 125f.); λα(ο)-ξό(ο)ς with λαξεύω etc. (Georgacas Glotta 36, 165 f.), λατύπος; as 2. member in κραταί-λεως (< -*ληϜος or -*λαϜος; cf. below) with hard rock (A., E.), prob. also in ὑπο-λαΐς, -ίδος (H. also -ληΐς) f. name of an unknown bird (Arist.); cf. Thompson Birds s.v.; s. also 2. λαιός.
Derivatives: λάϊγγες f. pl. small stones (Od., A. R.; on the formation Chantraine Formation 399; wrong Specht Ursprung 127; s. also below); λάϊνος, -ΐνεος (of) stone (Il.); uncertain λαιαί f. pl. (Arist.), λεῖαι (Gal.), sg. λεία (Hero) the stones used as weights hanging from the upright loom; unclear λαίεται καταλεύεται H. and λαυστήρ μοχθηρός ... η οἴκου λαύρα, λαύστρανον τινες λύκον, τινες φρέατος ἅρπαγα H.; hypotheses by Jokl Rev. int. ét. balk. 1,46ff.
Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]X [probably]
Etymology: On λαύρα and λεύω s. vv. The unique stemformation of λᾶας is unexplained. One supposes an old neuter with sec. transition to the masc. (fem.) after λίθος, πέτρος (Brugmann IF 11, 100 ff.). The further evaluation is quite uncertain. After Brugmann orig. nom.-acc. *λῆϜας (< IE. *lēu̯ǝs-; on the full grade cf. λεύω and λεῖαι), gen., dat. etc. *λάϜασ-ος, (IE. *lǝu̯ǝs-os, -i) > λᾶ-ος, , to which analogically the nom. λᾶ-ας was formed. The simpler assumption, that only the vowellength in λᾶας (for older *λάϜας) was taken from (gen.) λᾶ-ος etc., is rejected by B. Metrical objections against a contraction of *λάϜασ-ος, to λᾶ-ος, by Ruijgh l.c.; he prefers, with Chantraine Gramm. hom. 1, 211 to see in λᾶ-ος, etc. an (unenlarged) consonant-stem λαϜ-. Who accepts these, not decisive, objections but also does not want to assume heteroclis, might assume a full grade monosyllabic oblique stem *λαϜσ- (beside *λαϜασ-). The abandoning of the old σ-flection was anyhow connected with the gender-change. - Quite diff. Pedersen Cinq. decl. lat. 44ff. (with de Saussure Rec. 587 f.): λᾶας old masc. ablauting ā-stem: *λαϜα- : λαϜ(α)- < IE. *leh₂ueh₂- : *leh₂u̯(h₂)-; the supposed full grade -ā- (*-eh₂-) is however quite hypothetical, but it would nicely explain the absence of the root-vowel in the inflection; followed by Beekes, Origins (1985)15-17. - The word λᾶας was apparently unknown to Ion.-Attic (Wackernagel Hell. 9 f., Chantraine Gramm. hom. 1,22; doubts in Björck Alpha impurum 69 and 76 n. 1); Ion.-Att. form shows κραταί-λεως (or only poetical analogy after λαός : Μενέ-λεως a.o.?); thus the free-standing λεύω (s. v.). Connections to λᾶας outside Greek are rare and not without doubt. First Alb. lerë, -a stone, heap of stones, stony plain, rockslope from IE. *lāue (Jokl Rev. int. et. balk. 1, 46ff.; to λαύρα?, s.v.); Illyr. PN Lavo f. prop. "which belongs to the rock (stone)" (from *lava stone; Krahe ZNF 19, 72; Spr. d. Illyr. 1,69 f.). One considers further the orig. Celtic Lat. lausiae f. small stones from stone-cuttings, s. W.-Hofmann s. v. The suffixal agreement between λάϊγγες and OIr. līe, gen. līac (< Celt. *līu̯ank-; cf. Pok. 683 against Loth Rev. celt. 44, 293; also Lewy Festschr. Dornseiff 226 f.) is no doubt accidental. Further uncertain combinations in Bq, WP. 2, 405 ff., W.-Hofmann s. lausiae. - For Aegaean origin also Chantraine Formation 421, Güntert Labyrinth 5,9. - Since the Myc. form shows that there was no -w- in the form, we must assume *lah- (but not from *las-, as the -s- would have been retained. Hence the relation to λεύω, λαύρα has become quite unclear. See Heubeck, IF 66 (1961) 29-34. Fur. 329 compares λέπας; he considers (n. 53) λαίνθη λάρναξ λιθίνη Cyr. as proof of Pre-Greek origin.

Middle Liddell

λᾶας, ου, ὁ, [a gen. λάου in Soph. as if λᾶας was of first decl.]
Lat. lapis, a stone, Hom., etc.