Ask at the forum if you have an Ancient or Modern Greek query!

κναίω

Ἐς δὲ τὰ ἔσχατα νουσήματα αἱ ἔσχαται θεραπεῖαι ἐς ἀκριβείην, κράτισται -> For extreme diseases, extreme methods of cure, as to restriction, are most suitable.
Corpus Hippocraticum, Aphorisms 1.6.2
Click links below for lookup in third sources:
Full diacritics: κναίω Medium diacritics: κναίω Low diacritics: κναίω Capitals: ΚΝΑΙΩ
Transliteration A: knaíō Transliteration B: knaiō Transliteration C: knaio Beta Code: knai/w

English (LSJ)

v. κνάω, prob. l. for καινιεῖ, LXX Si. 38.28; — elsewh. only in compds.

* Abbreviations: ALL | General | Authors & Works

German (Pape)

[Seite 1459] = κνάω, Sp. u. VLL., häufiger in Zusammensetzungen.

Greek (Liddell-Scott)

κναίω: κνάω, πιθ. ἡμαρτημ. γραφ. ἀντὶ τοῦ καινιεῖ. Ἑβδ. (Σειρὰχ ΛΗ΄, 28)· ἀλλαχοῦ εὕρηται μόνον ἐν συνθέτοις, ἀπο-, ἐκ-, δια-κναίω.

French (Bailly abrégé)

c. κνάω.

Greek Monolingual

κναίω (Α)
βλ. κνω.

Frisk Etymological English

Grammatical information: v.
Meaning: scrape, scratch, only with prefix, δια-, ἀπο-, ἐκ-, κατα-κναίω (Hp., Trag. in lyr., Att.);
Other forms: also as simplex, Att. inf. κνῆ-ν, κνῆ-σθαι, 1. a. 3. sg. pres. κνῶ, κνῃ̃, ipf. ἐπὶ ... κνῆ (Λ 639), also κνᾶ-ν (Hdt.), κνᾶ-σθαι, κνᾳ̃ (hell.); further κνήθω, also with κατα-, ἐν-, ἐπι- a. o. (Arist., hell.). Non-pres. forms: 1. -κναῖσαι, -κναισθῆναι, -κναίσω, -κεκναισμένος (Ar., E. in lyr., Pl.,Theoc.); more usual (as simpl. a. comp.) 2. κνῆσαι, Dor. opt. midd. (Theoc.) κνάσαιο, κνησθῆναι, κνήσω, κέκνησμαι (IA.).
Derivatives: Action nouns: 1. κνῆσις scratching, tickling (Pl.) with κνησιάω desire to tickle (Ar., Pl.), also κνηστιάω id. (Gal., Jul.; after the verbs in -τιάω) and κνηθιάω id. (Hdn., EM; after κνήθω, cf. Schwyzer 732). 2. κνῆσμα (rarely κνῆμα) id. (Hp., X.); 3. κνησμονή id. (medic.; πῆμα : πημονή etc.); 4. κνησμός id. (Hp., Arist.) with κνησμώδης affected with itching (Hp., Arist., Str.). 5. κνηθμός itching (Nic.). - Agent nouns and instruments: 6. κνῆστις f. (from *κνήστης m.) knife for scratching, cheese-grater (Λ 640, Nic., Opp.), also spine (κ 161; cf. ἄκνηστις s.v.); diff. on κνῆστις z. B. Fraenkel Glotta 4, 41ff., Benveniste Noms d'agent 77; 7. κνηστήρ scratching knife (Nic.). 8. κνηστίς -ίδος f. hollow hair-pin (Plu.). 9. κνῆστρον stinging plant, Daphne oleoides, θυμελαία (Hp., Dsc.); κνηστρίον scraper, (Edict. Diocl.). - Adj. 10. κνηστικός scratching, itching (Sch.).
Origin: PG [a word of Pre-Greek origin]X [probably]
Etymology: Of the presents κναίειν, κνῆν, κνήθειν the last can be an innovation to κνῆ-σαι etc. after πλῆ-σαι : πλή-θ-ω, λῆ-σαι : λήθ-ω a. o. The pair κνῆν : κναίειν agrees with the semantically close ψῆν : ψαίειν. - One compares several words with initial IE. *k(e)n- but with different forms, which is not surprising in view of the emotional value of expressions for scratch, grate. With κνῆ-ν (prob. orig. athematic; Schwyzer 675f., Chantraine Gramm. hom. 1, 297 a. 307) from IE. *knē- agree best in Baltic and Germanic Lith. kn(i)ó-tis peek (oneself) off, get loose, OHG nuoen make smooth by scratching, fit exactly (with OHG hnuo joint, groove etc.) from IE. *knō-? (cf. κνώ-δ-αλον?), perhaps *knā- as in Alb. krromë scab, mange form IE. *knā-mn̥ (Gr. κνῆμα is independent). Lat. cnāsonas however, acc. pl. scratching nails (Paul. Fest. 52) from hell. *κνάσων scratcher (κνᾶσαι ὀλέσαι, λυπῆσαι H.); cf. Leumann Sprache 1, 207. - The -αι- in κναίω however has no direct counterpart (Lith. knaisýti is secondary to knìsti scratch, s. κνίζω). Connecting κνῆ-ν and κναί-ειν to an old paradigma (*knē(i)-mi : knǝi-mé (Schwyzer 676; cf. Specht Ursprung 325; the last form is impossible since the laryngeal theory) is quite hypothetical. - Cf. κνίζω, κνύω, κνάπτω; κνώδαλον, κνήφη, κνέωρος and κόνις; s. Pok. 559ff., Fraenkel Lit. et. Wb. s. knablỹs. - Strangely enough it has not been proposed that the words could well be Pre-Greek; the meaning makes this quite possible; the connections in Pok. 599 are far from convincing. Cf. also κναδάλλεται κνήθεται H., with which compare γνάφαλλον, γνόφαλον, which are clearly Pre-Greek (s.s.v. κνάπτω); is κναδ- a variant of κνηθ-? For κναδ- no PIE prefrom can be reconstructed (cf. on γνάθος). Note that Kuiper assumed that words with kn- in Germanic were prob. substrate, NOWELE 25 (1995) 68 a.70. The formation of κνήσων (and the Latin loan cnason- cited above) seems non-IE; cf. DELG s.v. Also the formation of a verb in -αίω is unknown.
See also: - S. noch κνέωρος, κνήφη.