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servus

Μή, φίλα ψυχά, βίον ἀθάνατον σπεῦδε, τὰν δ' ἔμπρακτον ἄντλει μαχανάν -> Oh! my soul do not aspire to eternal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible
Pindar, Pythian, 3.61f.

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

servus: (-ŏs), i, m., and serva, ae, f.,
I a slave, servant, serf, serving-man; a female slave, maid-servant.
   A Masc. (syn.: famulus, mancipium), Enn. ap. Non. 471, 19 (Com. v. 5 Vahl.); Cato ap. Gell. 10, 3, 17: servi, ancillae, id. ap. Fest. s. v. prohibere, p. 234 Müll.; cf.: Ulixes domi etiam contumelias servorum ancillarumque pertulit, Cic. Off. 1, 31, 113: servus armiger, Plaut. Cas. 2, 3, 39: dotalis, id. As. 1, 1, 72: frugi, id. Aul. 4, 1, 1: graphicus et quantivis pretii, id. Ep. 3, 3, 29: nequam et malus, id. Poen. 5, 2, 70: scelestus, infidelis, id. Trin. 2, 4, 126: peculiosus, id. Rud. 1, 2, 24: peculiaris, id. Capt. prol. 20: fallax, Ov. Am. 1, 15, 17: servus a pedibus, Cic. Att. 8, 5, 1: a manu, Suet. Caes. 74: aliquem servum sibi habere ad manum, Cic. de Or. 3, 60, 225: publici, public slaves, S. C. ap. Front. Aquaed. 100; Varr. ap. Gell. 13, 13, 4; Cic. Phil. 8, 8, 24; Liv. 9, 29 fin. et saep.; cf. Dig. 1, 5, 5.—Prov.: quot servi, tot hostes, Sinn. Capito ap. Fest. s. v. quot, p. 261 Müll.; cf. Sen. Ep. 47, 3; Macr. S. 1, 11 med.—Esp.: poenae servus, a slave of punishment, i. e. condemned to servile labor, Just. Inst. 1, 12, 3; Dig. 48, 19, 17.—
   2    Trop.: vidit enim eos, qui se judiciorum dominos dici volebant, harum cupiditatum esse servos, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 22, § 58: neque tam servi illi dominorum, quam tu libidinum, id. ib. 2, 4, 50, § 112: omnium libidinum servi, Plin. Ep. 8, 22, 1: adulescens libertorum suorum libertus servorumque servus, Vell. 2, 73, 1: servus potestatis, Cic. Cael. 32, 79; cf. also the doubtful reading: legum omnes servi sumus ut liberi esse possimus, id. Clu. 53, 146 (where B. and K. have omnes servimus).—
   B Fem. (mostly anteclass. for ancilla): servae sint istae an liberae, Plaut. Rud. 4, 4, 62: ego serva sum, id. Cist. 4, 2, 99; id. Pers. 4, 4, 63; id. Poen. 5, 4, 31: serva nata, id. Rud. 1, 3, 37: servum servaque natum regnum occupasse, Liv. 1, 47 fin.: serva Briseis, Hor. C. 2, 4, 3 et saep.
servus: a, um, adj. referred by the ancients to servo: servi ex eo appellati sunt, quod imperatores servos vendere, ac per hoc servare, nec occidere solent, Just. Inst. 1, 3, 3; but prob. from root svar-; Lith. svaras, a weight; cf. Gr. ἕρμα; O. H. Germ. swari, burdensome; Germ. schwer, heavy; cf. also serius,
I slavish, servile, subject.
I In gen.
   A With homo (= 2. servus; mostly ante-class.): non decet superbum esse hominem servom, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 64; id. Mil. 2, 6, 80; id. Stich. 1, 2, 1; 5, 4, 10; id. Ep. 1, 1, 58; 3, 1, 7; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 62.—
   B With other subjects (not freq. till after the Aug. per.): octo milia liberorum servorumque capitum sunt capta, Liv. 29, 29: corpori, quod servum fortuna erat, vim fecit, id. 38, 24: Graeciae urbes servae et vectigales (opp. liberae), id. 34, 58: civitas, id. 25, 31: Lacedaemon, id. 34, 41: serva manus, Ov. F. 6, 558: o imitatores, servum pecus! Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 19: serva aqua, i. e. servorum, Ov. Am. 1, 6, 26; cf. Petr. 71: servam operam, linguam liberam herus me jussit habere, Plaut. Pers. 2, 4, 9: omnia non serva et maxime regna hostilia ducunt (Romani), Sall. H. 4, 61, 17 Dietsch: reges serva omnia et subjecta imperio suo esse velint, Liv. 37, 54; 42, 46: statu libera quicquid peperit, hoc servum heredis est, Dig. 40, 7, 16.—
II Jurid. t. t., of buildings, lands, etc., liable to certain burdens, subject to a servitude: libera (praedia) meliore jure sunt quam serva, Cic. Agr. 3, 2, 9: fundus, Dig. 8, 6, 6: aedes, ib. 8, 2, 35: area, ib. 8, 2, 34 al.; cf. servio, II. B., and servitus, II B.—Hence,>

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

(1) servus,¹² a, um, d’esclave, esclave, asservi : serva capita Liv. 29, 29, 3, = servi, esclaves ; servum pecus Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 19, troupeau servile ; servam civitatem habere Liv. 25, 31, 5, tenir une cité asservie || [droit] prædia serva Cic. Agr. 3, 9, terres grevées de servitudes.
(2) servus,⁶ ī, m., esclave : Pl., Ter., Cic. etc. || [fig.] cupiditatum Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 58, esclave des passions, cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 112 ; Cæl. 79.

Latin > German (Georges)

servus (altlat. servos), ī, m. u. serva, ae, f. (servo; eigentl. der Hüter, Wächter des Viehes), der Sklave, die Sklavin (Ggstz. liber, der Freie), a) m., Cic. u.a.: servi publici, Staatssklaven, Cic.: servi fratres, Apul. met. 10, 13: feci ex servo ut esses libertus mihi, Ter. – übtr., servi cupiditatum, Cic.: legum, Cic.: servus potestatis vestrae, Cic.: servi ventris vos estis, Iul. Val. 3, 16 ed. Paris. – b) f., Plaut., Liv. u.a.: facta e serva libera est, Plaut. – Dav. adi. servus, a, um, sklavisch, übtr., dienstbar, unterworfen, a) im allg.: aqua, von Sklaven getrunken, Ov.: manus, Ov.: civitas, Liv.: capita, Liv.: imitatorum servum pecus, Hor.: omnia non serva (alles Nichtdienstbare) hostilia ducere, Sall. fr. – b) als jurist. t. t., v. Häusern u. liegenden Gründen, mit einer Servitut beschwert, praedia serva, Cic.: aedes, fundus, ICt.

Latin > English

servus servi N M :: slave; servant