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simulacrum

Μὴ φῦναι τὸν ἅπαντα νικᾷ λόγον -> Not to be born is, past all prizing, best.
Sophocles, Oedipus Coloneus l. 1225

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

sĭmŭlācrum: i, n. simulo, an image formed in the likeness of a thing,
I a likeness, image, form, representation, semblance (class.; syn.: imago, effigies, signum).
I Lit., of images formed by art, reflected in a mirror, or seen in a dream; of apparitions, visions, etc. (the latter mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose).
   A Of images formed by art, esp. of statues of the gods, an image, figure, portrait, effigy, statue, etc.: alicujus effigiem simulacrumque servare, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 65, § 159; cf.: statuas et imagines, non animorum simulacra sed corporum ... relinquere, id. Arch. 12, 30: Helenae se pingere simulacrum velle dixit (Zeuxis), id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; cf. id. Fam. 5, 12, 7: delubra magnifica humanis consecrata simulacris, id. Rep. 3, 9, 14; but cf.: simulacrum deae non effigie humanā, Tac. H. 2, 3: deorum simulacra sanctissima, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 1, 3; so of the images of the gods, id. Verr. 2, 5, 72, § 185; Caes. B. G. 6, 16; 6, 17; id. B. C. 2, 5; 3, 105; Tac. H. 2, 3; id. A. 12, 22 al.: tueri aras simulacraque divom, Lucr. 5, 75; 5, 308: et bene facta deum frangit simulacra, id. 6, 419; Verg. A. 2, 172; Ov. M. 10, 694; 15, 658 al.; cf.: Herculis simulacrum, Liv. 9, 44 fin.: simulacra oppidorum, Cic. Pis. 25, 60; cf. pugnarum, Liv. 41, 28, 10: Balbum in triumpho omnium gentium urbiumque nomina ac simulacra duxisse, Plin. 5, 5, 5, § 36; cf. also: simulacrum celebrati diei pingere, Liv. 24, 16 fin.: montium, fluviorum, Tac. A. 2, 41.— Poet., of the Trojan horse, Verg. A. 2, 232 (for which, effigies, id. ib. 2, 184).—
   b Adverb.: ad or per simulacrum (like ad similitudinem, formam), in the form of, after the pattern of: aurata aedes ad simulacrum templi Veneris collocata, Suet. Caes. 84: ad simulacrum ignium ardens Pharus, id. Flor. 4, 2, 88; cf.: ad simulacrum caelestium siderum, id. ib. 1, 2, 3: digiti per litterarum simulacra ducuntur, Sen. Ep. 94, 51.—
   B An image, form, shade, phantom seen in a mirror, in a dream, etc.; analogous to the Gr. εἴδωλον: quaecunque apparent nobis simulacra, Lucr. 4, 99; cf.: per aquas, quae nunc rerum simulacra videmus, id. 1, 1060: quid frustra simulacra fugacia (in aquā visa) captas? Ov. M. 3, 432. —Of the shades or ghosts of the departed: quaedam simulacra modis pallentia miris, Lucr. 1, 123 (cf. Verg. G. 1, 477 infra); cf.: est via declivis (in Tartarum) ... umbrae recentes Descendunt illac simulacraque functa sepulcris, Ov. M. 4, 435; so id. ib. 10, 14: simulacra cara parentis, id. ib. 14, 112; cf. Verg. A. 2, 772: ut bibere in somnis sitiens cum quaerit ... laticum simulacra petit, etc., Lucr. 4, 1099; cf.: (canes) Expergefacti secuntur inania saepe Cervorum simulacra, id. 4, 995: simulacra inania somni, Ov. H. 9, 39: vana (noctis), id. Am. 1, 6, 9: simulacra modis pallentia miris Visa sub obscurum noctis, Verg. G. 1, 477; Sil. 3, 650 al.; cf.: ne vacua mens audita simulacra et inanes sibi metus fingeret, Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 7.—
   2    In the philosoph. lang. of Lucret. (like the Gr. εἴδωλον and the Lat. spectrum), the form or image of an object of sense or thought presented to the mind; a representation, idea, conception, Lucr. 2, 112; 4, 130; 4, 149 sq.—
   3    Of mnemonic signs, types, or emblems: ut res ipsas rerum effigies notaret atque ut locis pro cerā, simulacris pro litteris uteremur, Cic. de Or. 2, 86, 354.—
   4    A description, a portraiture of character: non inseram simulacrum viri copiosi (Catonis), quae dixerit referendo, Liv. 45, 25.—
   5    A likeness or similitude: diu disputavi, Hominem quojus rei Similem esse arbitrarer simulacrumque habere: Id repperi jam exemplum, etc., Plaut. Most. 1, 2, 6.—
II In partic., with the predominant idea of mere imitation (opp. to that which is original or real), a shadow, semblance, appearance, etc.: simulacrum aliquod ac vestigium civitatis, Cic. Fam. 10, 1, 1; cf.: simulacra virtutis, id. Off. 1, 15, 46; and: haec simulacra sunt auspiciorum, auspicia nullo modo, id. Div. 2, 33, 71: libertatis, Tac. A. 1, 77: belli simulacra cientes, i.e. mock-fights, sham-fights, Lucr. 2, 41; 2, 324: pugnaeque cient simulacra sub armis, Verg. A. 5, 585; 5, 674; Sil. 16, 529; 7, 119; cf.: simulacrum navalis pugnae, Liv. 26, 51, 6; 35, 26, 2: quibusdam pugnae simulacris ad verum discrimen aciemque justam consuescimus, Quint. 2, 10, 8; so, ludicrum pugnae, Liv. 40, 9: decurrentis exercitūs, id. 44, 9: vindemiae, Tac. A. 11, 31: civilitatis particulae, Quint. 2, 15, 25: inania, id. 10, 5, 17.

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

sĭmŭlācrum,⁸ ī, n. (simulo),
1 représentation figurée de qqch. : non animorum simulacra, sed corporum Cic. Arch. 30, représentations, non des âmes, mais des corps ; oppidorum Cic. Pis. 60, reproductions de villes, cf. Plin. 5, 36 ; [d’où] image, portrait, effigie, statue : Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 159, etc.; simulacrum ex ære Dianæ Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 72, statue de Diane en airain ; simulacrum celebrati ejus diei pingi jussit Liv. 24, 16, 19, il fit reproduire dans un tableau le spectacle de cette journée ; litterarum simulacra Sen. Ep. 94, 51, tracé, figuration des lettres || ad simulacrum templi Veneris Suet. Cæs. 84, à l’image (sur le modèle) du temple de Vénus || [en part.] mannequins d’osier [dans lesquels on enfermait des hommes vivants, et que l’on brûlait en l’honneur des dieux]: Cæs. G. 6, 16, 4
2 [fig.] a) fantôme, ombre, spectre : Lucr. 4, 99 ; Virg. G. 1, 477 ; Ov. H. 9, 39 ; etc.; b) [phil.] = εἴδωλον, image, simulacre des objets : Lucr. 4, 130, etc.; c) [mnémotechnie] représentation matérielle des idées : Cic. de Or. 2, 354 ; d) portrait moral : Liv. 45, 25, 3 ; e) simulacre, apparence : Cic. Div. 2, 71 ; simulacra virtutis Cic. Off. 1, 46, des apparences de vertu ; belli simulacra Lucr. 2, 41, simulacres de la guerre, image de la guerre ; cf. Virg. En. 5, 585 ; Liv. 26, 51, 6 ; 35, 26, 2 ; Tac. Ann. 11, 31.

Latin > German (Georges)

simulācrum, ī, n. (v. simulo, wie lavacrum v. lavo), das Ebenbild, Abbild, Bildnis, I) eig.: 1) als Werk der Plastik, Malerei usw., a) übh.: oppidorum, Cic.: montium (abgemalt), Tac.: statuae et imagines non animorum simulacra, sed corporum, Cic.: simulacrum Helenae pingere, Cic.: u. so simulacrum eius rei pingi iubere, Liv.: ipsum hominem cupere evertere, eius effigiem simulacrumque servare, Cic. – ad simulacrum alcis rei, nach dem Bilde-, Muster von usw., templi Veneris, Suet.: ignium, Flor.: so auch per litterarum simulacra, Sen. – b) die Puppe, simulacra cerea, Ov. her. 6, 91: simulacra hominum armata, Frontin. 3, 8, 3: simulacra illa armatorum, ibid. – 2) v. Spiegel-, Schatten-, Traum- u. Phantasiebildern: a) v. Spiegelbild, Lucr. 4, 97: im Wasser, Lucr. 1, 1060. Ov. met. 3, 432. – b) = Schattenbild, Schatten der Abgeschiedenen, Ov. u.a.: simulacra pallentia, Enn. u. Lucr.: incertum, Apul. Vgl. die Auslgg. zu Prop. 1, 19, 11. Delr. Sen. Herc. Oet. 1959. p. 358 sq. – c) = Traumbild, simulacra inania somni, Ov.: vana (noctis), Ov.: pallentia, Verg. – d) = Gespenst, simulacra audita, Gespenstergeschichten, Plin. ep. 7, 27, 7 (§ 6 imago gen.). – e) (wie imago b. Cic. = εἴδωλον) als t. t. der epikurëischen Philos. = das dem Geiste vorschwebende Abbild eines gesehenen od. gedachten Gegenstandes, Lucr. 2, 112; 4, 128. – f) v. den mnemonischen Bildern od. Vorstellungen, Cic. de or. 2, 354. – 3) übtr., v. Bilde der Rede: a) = das Charakterbild, die Charakterschilderung, viri, Liv. 45, 25, 3. – b) = das Gleichnis (gew. imago), Plaut. most. 89. – II) übtr., im Ggstz. zur Wirklichkeit: 1) im allg., das bloße Abbild, die Nachbildung, simulacra virtutis, Cic.: belli, Scheinkämpfe, Lucr.: pugnae, Verg.: s. ludicrum pugnae, s. navalis pugnae, Manöver, Liv.: u. so decurrentis exercitus, Liv.: simulacra proeliorum, Gell.: s. vindemiae, Tac. – 2) insbes.: a) mit dem Nebenbegr. des Täuschenden = das Scheinbild, Schattenbild, Trugbild, Phantom, der Schein, simulacra religionis, Cic. de div. 1, 105. – b) mit dem Nbbgr. des Wesenlosen = der Schatten, si denique imaginem iudiciorum aut simulacrum aliquod futurum reliquum credidisset, Cic.: haec simulacra sunt auspiciorum, auspicia nullo modo, Cic.: qui ea simulacra libertatis senatui praebebat, Tac.: simulacra inania, wesenlose Bilder, Quint.

Latin > English

simulacrum simulacri N N :: likeness, image, statue