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supplicium

Ἓν οἶδα, ὅτι οὐδὲν οἶδα –> I know only one thing, that I know nothing | all I know is that I know nothing.
Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers, Book 2 sec. 32.

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

supplĭcĭum: (subpl-), ii, n. supplex; prop. a kneeling down, either as a suppliant or to receive punishment.
I As a suppliant.
   A In relig. lang., humiliation, a public prayer or supplication, an act of worship (mostly ante-Aug. and in prose after the Aug. period; not in Cic. or Cæs.; syn.: supplicatio, obsecratio): nunc pergam, ut suppliciis placans caelitum aras expleam, Att. ap. Non. 398, 19; cf.: deos suppliciis, sumptu, votis, donis, Precibus plorans, obsecrans, Afran. ib. 398, 22: suppliciis votisque fatigare deos, Liv. 27, 50, 5: non votis neque suppliciis muliebribus auxilia deorum parantur, Sall. C. 52, 29.—
   2    Esp., a sacrificing, offering: nihil ei (Jovi) acceptum est a perjuris supplicii, offering, sacrifice, Plaut. Rud. prol. 25: in suppliciis deorum magnifici, Sall. C. 9, 2; id. J. 55, 1: precibus suppliciisque deos placare, Liv. 22, 57, 5; cf.: quos (boves) ad deorum servant supplicia, Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 10: tum supplicia dis ludique magni ab senatu decernuntur, Tac. A. 3, 64 Nipperd. ad loc.: vannos onustas aromatis et hujuscemodi suppliciis congerunt, App. M. 11, p. 265, 3; id. Dogm. Plat. 2, p. 16, 5: supplicia veteres quaedam sacrificia a supplicando vocabant, Fest. pp. 308 and 309 Müll. —
   B Transf., out of the relig. sphere, an humble entreaty or petition, a supplication in gen. (very rare): Vagenses fatigati regis suppliciis, Sall. J. 66, 2: igitur legatos ad consulem cum suppliciis mittit, qui tantummodo ipsi liberisque vitam peterent, id. ib. 46, 2.—
II To receive punishment; hence, punishment, penalty, torture, torment, pain, distress, suffering (class. and freq.; usu. of the penalty of death; syn. poena).
   (a)    Sing.: dabitur pol supplicium mihi de tergo vestro, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 75 sq.; cf.: illi de me supplicium dabo, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 86; id. Eun. 1, 1, 24; Cat. 116, 8; Nep. Paus. 5, 5: de homine nobili virgis supplicium crudelissime sumere, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 37, § 91; 2, 5, 45, § 117: sumere (de aliquo), Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 72; id. Merc. 5, 4, 31; Ter. And. 3, 5, 17; Cic. Inv. 2, 28, 84; id. Rep. 3, 33, 45; Caes. B. G. 1, 39; Liv. 2, 5, 5; 3, 18, 10: aliquem hostibus ad supplicium dedere, Caes. B. G. 7, 26: aliquem tradi ad supplicium jubere, Tac. A. 11, 35: rapi, Cic. de Or. 2, 59, 138: supplicio affici, to be put to death, Caes. B. G. 1, 27: ne ad ultimum supplicium progredi necesse habeant, to take their own lives, id. B. C. 1, 84: aliquem vinculis ac verberibus atque omni supplicio excruciatum necare, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 11: summo cruciatu supplicioque perire, id. N. D. 3, 33, 81: gravissimum ei rei supplicium cum cruciatu constitutum est, Caes. B. G. 6, 17: talis improborum consensio supplicio omni vindicanda (est), Cic. Lael. 12, 43: satis supplicii tulisse, Caes. B. C. 1, 84: supplicio culpa reciditur, Hor. C. 3, 24, 34: suā manu supplicium persolvere, Tac. A. 6, 32 (26): luere, Just. 2, 5, 6; Tac. A. 15, 60: supplicium redimere opimā mercede, Amm. 26, 3, 4.—
   (b)    Plur.: ad exquisita supplicia proficisci, Cic. Off. 3, 27, 100: semper iis (improbis) ante oculos judicia et supplicia versentur, id. Rep. 3, 16, 26: ad innocentum supplicia descendunt, Caes. B. G. 6, 17: supplicia annua pendere, Plin. 29, 4, 14, § 57: subire, Cic. Ep. ad Brut. 1, 12, 1: suppliciis delicta coërcere, Hor. S. 1, 3, 79: subplicia in post futuros conposuit, Sall. H. 1, 41, 6 Dietsch: domant impios saeva supplicia, Sen. Herc. Fur. 749: supplicia haurire, Verg. A. 4, 383.

Latin > French (Gaffiot 2016)

supplĭcĭum(subpl-), ĭī, n. (supplex),
1 action de ployer les genoux : a) supplications aux dieux : Acc. d. Non. 398, 19 ; Sall. C. 52, 29 ; J. 55, 2 ; b) [surtout] offrande, sacrifice que l’on fait dans la supplication, cf. P. Fest. 308 ; boves quos ad deorum servant supplicia Varro R. 2, 5, 10, bœufs qu’ils réservent pour les sacrifices aux dieux, cf. Pl. Rud. 25 ; Sall. C. 9, 2 ; Liv. 22, 57, 5 ; Apul. M. 11, 16 ; c) prières à des hommes : fatigati regis suppliciis Sall. J. 66, 2, fatigués des supplications, des instances du roi, cf. Sall. J. 46, 2
2 punition, peine, châtiment, supplice : gravissimum supplicium ei rei constitutum est Cæs. G. 6, 17, 5, pour ce crime le supplice le plus rigoureux est institué ; illi de me supplicium dabo Ter. Haut. 138, je me punirai moi-même pour lui donner satisfaction, cf. Ter. Eun. 70 ; ad supplicium dari Nep. Paus. 5, 5, subir un supplice ; supplicium sumere de aliquo Ter. Andr. 624, châtier qqn ; de aliquo virgis supplicium crudelissime sumere Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 91, faire subir à qqn le supplice si cruel des verges, cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 117 ; Rep. 3, 45 ; supplicio affici Cæs. G. 1, 27, 4, subir un supplice, un châtiment ; supplicio omni vindicare aliquid Cic. Læl. 43, réprimer, châtier qqch. par toute espèce de supplice ; ad exquisita supplicia proficisci Cic. Off. 3, 100, aller au-devant de supplices raffinés ; ad innocentium supplicia descendunt Cæs. G. 6, 16, 5, ils en viennent à soumettre des innocents au supplice. gén. supplici Pl. Merc. 991 ; Ter. Andr. 903, etc.

Latin > German (Georges)

supplicium, iī, n. (supplex), das »Niederknien«, sowohl zum Gebete als zum Empfange der Bestrafung; dah. I) das flehentliche Bitten, Flehen, 1) die Demütigung vor Gott, das demütige, flehentliche Bitten, Beten, Flehen, das öffentliche Gebet, deorum supplicia, Varro: precibus suppliciisque deos placare, Liv.: supplicia dis decernuntur, Sall. – 2) das flehentliche, dringende Bitten, Flehen zu Menschen, fatigati suppliciis regis, Sall. Iug. 66, 2: legatos ad consulem cum suppliciis mittit, ibid. 46, 2. – II) die Bestrafung, Strafe, bes. die Todesstrafe, Hinrichtung, Marter, 1) eig.: ad supplicium dare od. tradere alqm, Nep. u. Liv.: ad supplicium producere alqm, Cic.: supplicium expetere, Liv.: supplicium petere ex alqo, Liv.: sumere supplicium de alqo, Caes., Cic. u.a., ex alqo, Liv., ab alqo, Val. Max.: supplicium sumere virgis, Cic.: supplicium expromere in alqm, Cic.: cur tot supplicia sint in improbos more maiorum constituta? Cic.: supplicium adhibere, Cic.: omni supplicio cruciare, Cic.: ad ultimum supplicium (Selbstmord) progredi, Caes.: supplicium dare alci, Komik u. Nep.: supplicium subire, Cic.: supplicia crucibus luere, Iustin.: crucis supplicio interimi (v. Christus), Arnob.: supplicio se subtrahere, Liv. – dah. übh. Marter, Qual, Pein, malorum, Verg.: paululum supplicii satis est patri, Ter.: satis supplicii tulisse (durch Mangel u. Durst), Caes.: supplicium de se dare filio, Genugtuung geben, Ter.: so auch dabitur supplicium (Genugtuung) mihi de tergo vestro, Plaut. – 2) meton., die durch Marter bewirkte Verstümmelung, Wunden, supplicia nostra, Vitr.: dira tegens supplicia, Verg.: quos Persae vario suppliciorum genere affecerant, Curt.: omnes pari supplicio affecti sibi videbantur, Curt. – / Genet. Sing. zusgz. supplici = supplicii, Acc. tr. 659. Plaut. merc. 991. Ter. Andr. 903 u.a. – Dat. od. Abl. Plur. zusgz. supplicis = suppliciis, Sen. Medea 743 u. 1015 Leo.

Latin > English

supplicium supplici(i) N N :: punishment, suffering; supplication; torture