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Ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς -> Either with this or on this | Come back victorious or dead
Plutarch, Moralia 241

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

antĕ: (old form anti, whence antidea, antideo, antidhac; v. antea, anteeo, and antehac) [Gr. ἀντί, over against, facing, ἄντα, ἄντην; Sanscr. anti = over against; Germ. ant- in Ant-wort = Goth. anda-vaurdi, an answer, anda-nahti, the night before, prep. and adv. (acc. to Max. Victor. p. 1953, as prep. with the grave accent; as adv. with the acute on the last syl.).
I Prep. with acc., before (syn.: prae, pro).
   A In space, or trop. in regard to estimation, judgment, or rank (usu. only of objects at rest. while prae is used of those in motion; cf. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 1, 21; v. exceptions infra).
   1    In space: quem ante aedīs video, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136: ante ostium Me audivit stare, Ter. And. 3, 1, 16; so Vulg. Lev. 1, 5: Ornatas paulo ante fores, Juv. 6, 227; so Vulg. Num. 3, 26: ante meum limen, Juv. 11, 190: ante suum fundum, Cic. Mil. 10: ut ante suos hortulos postridie piscarentur, id. Off. 3, 14, 58: ante sepulcrales infelix adstitit aras, Ov. M. 8, 480; so Verg. A. 1, 344; 3, 545; Juv. 10, 268: ante altaria, id. 8, 155; so Vulg. Deut. 26, 4; ib. Matt. 5, 24. —Of persons: ante hosce deos erant arulae, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3: quīs ante ora patrum contigit oppetere, Verg. A. 1, 95; id. G. 4, 477: ipsius unam (navem) ante oculos pontus in puppim ferit, id. A. 1, 114; 2, 531; 2, 773: ante se statuit funditores, Liv. 42, 58: Flos Asiae ante ipsum, Juv. 5, 56; Vulg. Matt. 17, 2: si luditur alea pernox Ante Numantinos, Juv. 8, 11.—Trop.: ante oculos collocata, Cic. de Or. 1, 43, 192: ante oculos errat domus, Ov. Tr. 3, 4, 57: causam ante eum diceret, before him as judge, Cic. Verr. 1, 3, 9: donec stet ante judicium, Vulg. Josh. 20, 6; ib. Marc. 13, 9.—And in eccl. Lat., after the Heb. and Hel. Gr., before, in the sight of, in the judgment of: ante Dominum vilior fiam, Vulg. 2 Reg. 6, 21 sq.: non te justifices ante Deum, ib. Eccli. 7, 5: justi ambo ante Deum, ib. Luc. 1, 6; and fully: fecit Asa rectum ante conspectum Domini, ib. 3 Reg. 15, 11; ib. Apoc. 12, 10.—Hence, homines ante pedes (in later Lat.), servants; cf. the annotators upon Juv. 7, 143.—With verbs of motion: ante me ito, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 70: equitatum omnem ante se mittit, Caes. B. G. 1, 21: ante ceteras cohortes extra aciem procurrere, id. B. C. 1, 55: praecurrit ante omnes, id. ib. 2, 34; so Nep. Dat. 3, 2; Liv. 7, 41; 45, 40 al.; Vulg. Lev. 27, 11; ib. 1 Reg. 12, 2.—
   2    Trop. of preference in judgment, or regulations in respect to rank, before (this is properly the signification of prae, q. v.; hence more rare than that, and never used by Cic.): quem ante me diligo, before myself, more than myself, Balbus ap. Cic. Att. 8, 15.—So ante aliquem esse, to surpass, excel any one: facundiā Graecos, gloriā belli Gallos ante Romanos fuisse, Sall. C. 53, 3, ubi v. Corte and Kritz: tum me vero et ante Alexandrum et ante Pyrrhum et ante omnes alios imperatores esse, superior to, Liv. 35, 14: necessitas ante rationem est, necessity knows no law, Curt. 7, 7, 10.—Hence very freq. (but mostly poet. and post-class.),
   a Ante alios, ante omnes, ante ceteros, etc., before others, before all, etc., to designate a comparative relation; also sometimes, for the sake of emphasis, with comparatives and superlatives: tibi, Neptune, ante alios deos gratias ago, Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 5; so Ov. M. 10, 120: scito illum ante omnīs minumi mortalem preti, Plaut. As. 5, 2, 8: tua ante omnes experientia, Tac. A. 2, 76; 1, 27; Liv. 1, 9: Junoni ante omnīs candentis vaccae media inter cornua (pateram) fundit, Verg. A. 4, 59: Ipse est ante omnes, Vulg. Col. 1, 17: O felix una ante alias Priameïa virgo, Verg. A. 3, 321: ante omnes furor est insignis equarum, id. G. 3, 266: scelere ante alios immanior omnīs, id. A. 1, 347; Liv. 5, 42: ante alios pulcherrimus omnīs Turnus, Verg. A. 7, 55; so Nep. Att. 3, 3; Liv. 1, 15; cf. Rudd. II. p. 82; II. p. 101; II. p. 305.—
   b Ante omnia.
   (a)    Before all things, first of all: alvus ante omnia ducitur, Cels. 7, 30: oportet autem ante omnia os nudare, id. 8, 2: Ante omnia instituit, ut etc., Suet. Ner. 32; id. Calig. 21: Ante omnia autem, fratres, etc., Vulg. Jac. 5, 12; ib. 1 Petr. 4, 8.—
   (b)    Comparatively, above all, especially, chiefty: publica maestitia eo ante omnia insignis, quia matronae annum, ut parentem, eum luxerunt, Liv. 2, 7; 7, 4: quae natura multis et ante omnia ursis, Plin. 8, 35, 53, § 125: dulces ante omnia Musae, the Muses pleasing above all things, Verg. G. 2, 475; id. E. 2, 72: deformem et taetrum ante omnia vultum, Juv. 10, 191.—
   (g)    In entering upon the discussion of several particulars, or in adducing arguments, first of all, in the first place (similar to ac primum quidem, καὶ πρῶτον μὲν οὖν; cf. Spald. ad Quint. 4, 2, 4): ante omnia quid sit rhetorice, Quint. 2, 15, 1: ante omnia igitur imitatio per se ipsa non sufficit, id. 10, 2, 4; so id. 1, 2, 9; 4, 2, 40; 4, 2, 52; 5, 13, 6; 9, 1, 23.—
   B Of time.
   1    Before: ANTE MERIDIEM CAVSAM CONICITO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Auct. ad Her. 2, 13; cf. Dirks. Transl. 177 sq.: ante lucem a portu me praemisisti domum, Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 55; so Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 259; id. Inv. 2, 4, 15; Suet. Galb. 22; Vulg. Luc. 24, 22: ante diem caupo sciet, Juv. 9, 108: ante brumam, Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 28: ante noctem, Hor. S. 1, 4, 51: pereundum erit ante lucernas, Juv. 10, 339: ante haec omnia, Vulg. Luc. 21, 12.— The designation of time is often expressed paraphrastically.
   a By a person who lived at the time: jam ante Socratem, before the time of, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 44: qui honos togato habitus ante me est nemini, before me, before my time, id. Cat. 4, 3: ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva coloni, Verg. G. 1, 125: vixere fortes ante Agamemnona Multi, Hor. C. 4, 9, 25: ante Helenam, id. S. 1, 3, 107: ante se, Tac. H. 1, 50: quod ante eum nemo, Suet. Caes. 26 al.—
   b By other objects pertaining to a particular time: ante hoc factum, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 64: ante has meas litteras, i. e. before the receipt of this letter, Cic. Fam. 13, 17: per hunc castissimum ante regiam injuriam sanguinem juro, Liv. 1, 59: ante mare et terras, et quod tegit omnia, caelum, Ov. M. 1, 5: ante sidus fervidum, Hor. Epod. 1, 27: ante cibum, id. S. 1, 10, 61, and Juv. 6, 428: Hoc discunt omnes ante alpha et beta, before their A B C, id. 14, 209: cur ante tubam tremor occupat artus? Verg. A. 11, 424: Tecum prius ergo voluta Haec ante tubas, Juv. 1, 169.—Also by the designation of the office of a person: ante aedilitatem meam, Cic. Att. 12, 17: ante sceptrum Dictaei regis, Verg. G. 2, 536: ante imperium ducis, Flor. 4, 2, 66: relictis multis filiis et in regno et ante regnum susceptis, Just. 2, 10.—And by the designation of office in app. to the person: mortuus est ante istum praetorem, Cic. Verr. 1, 45, 115: docuerant fabulas ante hos consules, id. Brut. 18, 73: cum ante illum imperatorem clipeis uterentur, Nep. Iphicr. 1, 3: quos ante se imperatorem nemo ausus sit aspicere, id. Epam. 8, 3.—A part. perf. or fut. pass. is freq. added to such substantives for the sake of explanation: ante hanc urbem conditam, before the founding of this city, Cic. Tusc. 5, 3, 7 (opp. post urbem conditam): non multo ante urbem captam, id. Div. 1, 45: ante Epaminondam natum, Nep. Epam. 10, 4: ante te cognitum multis orantibus opem tuli, Sall. J. 110, 2: ante decemviros creatos, Liv. 3, 53 al.—
   2    Hence particular phrases.
   a Ante tempus,
   (a)    Before the right time: ante tempus excitatis suis, Liv. 31, 36.—
   (b)    Before the appointed, proper, or lawful time: factus est consul bis, primum ante tempus, Cic. Lael. 3: honores et ante tempus et quosdam novi generis cepit, Suet. Aug. 26: venisti ante tempus torquere nos? Vulg. Matt. 8, 29 (cf. annus, II. D.).—
   b Ante diem, poet.,
   (a)    Before the time: Caesaribus virtus contigit ante diem, Ov. A. A. 1, 184: ante diem vultu gressuque superbo Vicerat aequales, Stat. S. 2, 1, 108.—
   (b)    Before the time destined by fate: filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos, Ov. M. 1, 148: hic dolor ante diem Pandiona misit ad umbras, id. ib. 6, 675; id. A. A. 3, 739: sed misera ante diem subitoque accensa furore, etc., Verg. A. 4, 697 (cf. Soph. Antig. 461: εἰ δὲ τοῦ χρόνου πρόσθεν θανοῦμαι). —
   c Ante hunc diem, with a negative: istunc hominem numquam audivi ante hunc diem, never before this day, never until now, Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 60; 4, 2, 7: neque umquam ante hunc diem, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 19; 5, 4, 23: Novum crimen et ante hunc diem inauditum ad te Q. Tubero detulit, Cic. Lig. 1, 1 (cf. Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 17: neque eum ante usquam conspexi prius). —
   3    Ante diem (abbrev. a. d.) with an ordinal number gives the date, not of the foregoing, but of the present day; e. g. ante diem quintum (a. d. V.) Kalendas Apriles, the fifth day before the calends of April. Orig. the ante belonged to Kalendas, and they said either, ante die quinto Kalendas (i. e. die quinto ante Kalendas), or ante diem quintum Kalendas; the latter phraseology became the prevailing one, and ante diem, being considered as one word, the prepp. in and ex could be prefixed; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 3, 12; Duker ad Liv. 27, 23; Rudd. II. p. 291; Madv. Gr. Suppl. I.; Drak. ad Liv. 45, 2, 12: me ante diem XIII. Kalendas Januarias principem revocandae libertatis fuisse, the thirteenth before the calends of January, i. e. the 20th of Dec., Cic. Phil. 14, 7, 20: ante diem XII. Kalendas Novembres, the 21st of Oct.: ante diem VI. Kalendas Novembres, the 27th of Oct., id. Cat. 1, 3: ante diem VIII. Kalendas Decembres, the 24th of Nov., id. Phil. 3, 8: a. d. IV. Id. Mart. (ante diem quartum Idus Martias), i. e. the 12th of March, Liv. 40, 59: ante diem III. Non. Jan. M. Cicero natus est, i. e. on the 3d of Jan., Gell. 15, 28 al.: in ante diem quartum Kal. Dec. distulit, Cic. Phil. 3, 8: caedem te optimatium contulisse in ante diem V. Kal. Nov., to the 28th of Oct., id. Cat. 1, 3: ex ante diem VII. Id. Febr., Varr. R. R. 1, 28, 1: nuntii venerant ex ante diem Non. Jun. usque ad prid. Kal. Sept., from the 3d of June, Cic. Att. 3, 17: supplicatio indicta est ante diem V. Id. Oct. cum eo die in quinque dies, Liv. 45, 2, 12.—
   4    Sometimes to designate the whole time until the passing moment: ante id tempus et mari et terrā duces erant Lace daemonii, Nep. Arist. 2, 3: qui honos huic uni ante id tempus contigit, id. Timoth. 2, 3: invictus ante eam diem fuerat, Curt. 5, 3, 22.—
   5    Ante annos, before the destined time: Ante suos annos occidit, Ov. Am. 2, 2, 46: Ante annos animumque gerens curamque virilem, beyond his years, Verg. A. 9, 311 (cf.: suos annos praeterire, Sil. 4, 428; and: annos transcendere factis, id. 2, 348). —
   6    Ante hoc, for antea, antehac, belongs to the later Latin: ante hoc incognita, Luc. 6, 116: ante hoc domūs pars videntur, Tac. G. 13.
II Adv., of space and time (the latter most freq.).
   A Of space, before, in front, forwards: post me erat Aegina, ante Megara, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 9: fluvius ab tergo, ante circaque velut ripa praeceps oram ejus omnem cingebat, Liv. 27, 18; 22, 5: coronatus stabit et ante calix, Tib. 2, 5, 98: plena oculis et ante et retro, Vulg. Apoc. 4, 6.—Of motion (cf. supra, I. A. 1.): si aut manibus ingrediatur quis aut non ante, sed retro, Cic. Fin. 5, 12, 35: pallida Tisiphone morbos agit ante metumque, Verg. G. 3, 552.—
Of time, before, previously (always in reference to another past time, while ante as prep. is used in reference to the present).
   a With verbs: nonne oportuit Praescīsse me ante, Ter. And. 1, 5, 4: id te oro, ut ante eamus, id. ib. 3, 3, 24; very freq. in Cic.: quod utinam illi ante accidisset, Cic. Phil. 11, 14: quae ante acta sunt, id. Verr. 1, 109: sicut ante fecimus, Vulg. Jos. 8, 5; ib. Jud. 16, 20: fructus omnis ante actae vitae, Cic. Marcell. 3; so Ov. M. 12, 115, and Tac. A. 6, 16: apud vos ante feci mentionem, Cic. Agr. 3, 4: faciam hoc non novum, sed ab eis ante factum, id. Verr. 1, 55; Verg. E. 9, 63; Juv. 3, 243; 15, 320: illud de quo ante dixi, Cic. Sex. Rosc. 116: quos ante dixi, id. Off. 2, 14, 50: ut ante dixi, id. Imp. Pomp. 16; id. Mil. 45: quem ad modum ante dixi, id. Sex. Rosc. 91: additis, quae ante deliquerant, Tac. A. 6, 9: filium ante sublatum brevi amisit, id. Agr. 6; id. G. 10; id. A. 11, 7; id. H. 2, 43.—And often accomp. by jam: acceperam jam ante Caesaris litteras, ut etc., Cic. Phil. 2, 49; id. Marcell. 12; id. Verr. 2, 23.—Rarely accomp. by saepe.: ut saepe ante fecerant, Cic. Balb. 40; id. Rab. Post. 13.—
   b Rarely with adjj.: non filius ante pudicus, Juv. 3, 111: quos acciverat, incertum, experiens an et ante gnavos, Tac. A. 14, 7.—
   c Often with substt. in the abl. or acc. for a more accurate designation of time (cf. also abhinc with the abl. and acc.; in these cases ante was considered by the ancient critics as a prep., which could also govern the abl.; cf. Charis. p. 209 P.; Serv. ad Verg. E. 1, 30. The position of ante is sometimes before and sometimes after the subst., and sometimes between the numeral and the subst.): illos septem et multis ante saeculis Lycurgum accepimus fuisse sapientes, Cic. Tusc. 5, 3, 7: etsi perpaucis ante diebus (i. e. before the departure of Theophilus, of whom mention is afterwards made) dederam Q. Mucio litteras ad te, id. Fam. 4, 9: paucis diebus ante, id. Phil. 2, 40: viginti annis ante, id. Lael. 12, 42: voverat eam annis undecim ante, Liv. 40, 52, 4 (cf. id. 40, 51: quae bello Ligustico ante annis octo vovisset): optimum erit ante annum scrobes facere, a year before, Col. 4, 2; Plin. Ep. 8, 23, 7: Tyron urbem ante annum Trojanae cladis condiderunt, a year before the fall of Troy, Just. 18, 3, 5: ante quadriennium amissus es, four years previously, Tac. Agr. 45: aliquot ante annos, Suet. Caes. 12; v. id. ib. 81 al.—
   d With the advv. multo, paulo, aliquanto, tanto, quanto, and rarely permultum: multo ante prospexi tempestatem futuram, Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3: haud multo ante adventum, Tac. Agr. 18.—And in the order ante multo: ante multo a te didicerimus, Cic. Sen. 2, 6: Venisti paulo ante in senatum, id. Cat. 1, 7, 16; id. Marcell. 7; id. Mil. 7; Tac. G. 41; id. H. 3, 68; Suet. Caes. 21; Vulg. Sap. 15, 8; ib. 2 Macc. 3, 30; 6, 29 et saep.—And in the order ante paulo: quae ante paulo perbreviter attigi, Cic. Rep. 2, 4: profectus est aliquanto ante furorem Catilinae, id. Sull. 20, 56 bis; id. Verr. 1, 149.—And in the order ante aliquanto: ante aliquanto quam tu natus es, Cic. Fam. 10, 4; id. Vatin. 25; id. Verr. 2, 46: tanto ante praedixeras, id. Phil. 2, 33: quod si Cleomenes non tanto ante fugisset, id. Verr. 2, 5, 34; 5, 78, 89; id. Cat. 3, 17; id. de Or. 1, 7, 26; so Quint. 2, 4, 28: quanto ante providerit, Cic. Sest. 8: permultum ante certior factus eram litteris, id. Fam. 3, 11; cf. Prisc. p. 1191 P.—
   2    Followed by quam (written also as one word, antequam; the form prius quam was more freq. in archaic Latin), sooner than; before.
   a With ind. pres.: ante quam doceo id factum non esse, libet mihi, Cic. Quinct. 48: ante quam ad sententiam redeo, de me pauca dicam, id. Cat. 4, 20; id. Mil. 7; id. Deiot. 7; id. Clu. 6.—
   b With ind. perf.: memini Catonem anno ante quam est mortuus mecum disserere, Cic. Lael. 3, 11: anno ipso ante quam natus est Ennius, id. Brut. 18, 72: ante aliquanto quam tu natus es, id. Fam. 10, 3: neque ante dimisit eum quam fidem dedit, Liv. 39, 10: ante quam ille est factus inimicus, Cic. Phil. 12, 9.—
   c Rarely with fut. perf.: ante provinciam sibi decretam audiet quam potuerit tempus ei rei datum suspicari, Cic. Phil. 11, 24: neque defatigabor ante quam ... percepero, id. de Or. 3, 36, 145.—
   d With subj. pres.: ante quam veniat in Pontum, litteras ad Cn. Pompeium mittet, Cic. Agr. 2, 53: hac lege ante omnia veniunt, quam gleba una ematur, id. ib. 2, 71; id. Sest. 15; id. Phil. 1, 1; Verg. E. 1, 60 sqq.; Vulg. Gen. 11, 4; ib. 4 Reg. 2, 9; ib. Matt. 6, 8.—
   e With subj. imperf.: Romae et ad urbem, ante quam proficisceretur, quaerere coepit, Cic. Verr. 2, 167: qui (sol) ante quam se abderet, fugientem vidit Antonium, id. Phil. 14, 27; 8, 1; id. Verr. 4, 147; Vulg. Gen. 2, 5; 13, 10; ib. Matt. 1, 18; ib. Joan. 8, 58.—
   f With subj. perf.: ante vero quam sit ea res adlata, laetitiā frui satis est, Cic. Phil. 14, 1: domesticum malum opprimit ante quam prospicere potueris, id. Verr. 1, 39; id. Sull. 44; id. Planc. 40: nec ante vincere desierint quam Rubro mari inclusis quod vincerent defuerit, Liv. 42, 52: nec ante (barbam capillumque) dempserit quam vindicāsset, Suet. Caes. 67.—
With subj. pluperf.: se ante quam eam uxorem duxisset domum, sperāsse etc., Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 71: qui ante quam de meo adventu audire potuissent, in Macedoniam perrexi, Cic. Planc. 98: ut consul ante fieret, quam ullum alium magistratum capere licuisset, id. Imp. Pomp. 62; id. Quinct. 9; id. Verr. 2, 55; 2, 171.—
With inf.: dici vix potest quam multa sint quae respondeatis ante fieri oportere, quam ad hanc rationem devenire, Cic. Quinct. 54.—
With part.: armati nullum ante finem pugnae quam morientes fecerunt, Liv. 21, 15, 4 (on the use of these different constructions, v. Roby, §§ 1671, 1462, 1672 etc.; Draeger, Hist. Synt. II. pp. 589 sqq.; and esp. Fischer, Gr. § 621). —In the poets sometimes with quam before ante: Respice item quam nil ad nos anteacta vetustas Temporis aeterni fuerit, quam nascimur ante, Lucr. 3, 972: Non ego signatis quicquam mandare tabellis, Ne legat id nemo quam meus ante, velim, Tib. 4, 7, 8; Mart. 9, 36, 6.—Also in the poets sometimes pleon. antepriusquam: sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat Ante, pudor, quam te violo aut tua jura resolvo, Verg. A. 4, 24; so, priusquamante: Aut prius infecto deposcit praemia cursu, Septima quam metam triverit ante rota? Prop. 3, 20, 25.—
   3    For the designation of order, foll. by tum, deinde, etc., first, in the first place (only in later Lat. for the class. primum): ut ante caput, deinde reliqua pars auferatur, Cels. 7, 29: et ante dicam de his, quae, etc.: tum, etc., id. 5, 26: ante tonderi ... deinde ... tum, etc., id. 6, 6, 8; so Plin. 34, 13, 34, § 131 dub.—
   4    Very rarely used as adj. (in imitation of the Greek): neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum, earlier, previous ills, Verg. A. 1, 198 (cf. τῶν πάρος κακῶν, Soph. O. T. 1423): ille elegit, qui recipit ante meliorem, Quint. Decl. 1, 14; cf. Liv. 24, 82, 5 (on this use of the adv., v. Kritz ad Sall. J. 76, 5).
III In composition.
   A Of space, before, in front of, forwards: antepono, antefigo, antefero, antemitto.—
   B Fig. of preference, before, above: antepono.—
   C Of degree, before, above, more: antepotens, antepollens—
   D In designations of time only with adjj. and advv.: antelucanus, antemeridianus, antehac, antelucio.With verbs, ante is more correctly written separately: ante actus, ante factus, ante gestus, ante paro, etc., although editions differ in this respect. V. more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 361-390, and pp. 394-402.

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

antĕ,⁵
    I adv.
1 [lieu] devant, en avant : innumerabiles supra, infra, ante, post... mundos esse Cic. Ac. 2, 125, [peut-on croire] qu’il y ait une infinité de mondes au-dessus, au-dessous, devant, derrière...; ante aut post pugnare Liv. 22, 5, 8, se battre en avant ou en arrière ; ante missis equitibus Cæs. C. 1, 51, 4, des cavaliers étant envoyés en avant ; ingredi non ante, sed retro Cic. Fin. 5, 35, marcher non pas en avant, mais à reculons
2 [temps] avant, auparavant, antérieurement : Cic. Tusc. 1, 99, etc. ; Cæs. C. 3, 105, 2, etc. ; Liv. 5, 20, 1, etc. || paulo, multo, aliquanto ante, peu, beaucoup, assez longtemps auparavant : paucis annis ante Cic. Phil. 2, 102 ; aliquot diebus ante Cæs. G. 4, 9, 3 ; tertio anno ante Liv. 2, 46, 4 ; biduo ante Cic. Pis. 61 ; anno ante Cic. Fl. 6, peu d’années auparavant, un certain nombre de jours avant, trois années avant, deux jours, une année avant ; paucis ante diebus Cic. Cat. 3, 3 ; multis ante annis Cic. Com. 27 ; annis ante paucis Cic. Sest. 28, peu de jours, plusieurs années, peu d’années auparavant ; paucis ante versibus Cic. Div. 1, 132, quelques vers avant || ignari non sumus ante malorum Virg. En. 1, 198, nous n’oublions pas nos maux antérieurs (nos anciennes infortunes); ne proderent patriam tyranni ante satellitibus et tum corruptoribus exercitus Liv. 24, 32, 5, [ils les conjuraient] de ne pas livrer la patrie aux anciens satellites du tyran, aujourd’hui corrupteurs de l’armée ; cruor paulo ante convivæ Curt. 8, 2, 3, le sang de celui qui venait d’être un convive.
    II prép. avec acc.,
1 [lieu] devant : ante oppidum considere Cæs. G. 7, 79, 4, prendre position devant la place ; cum ante se hostem videret Cæs. C. 1, 70, 3, voyant l’ennemi devant lui ; ante oculos ponere, placer devant les yeux || aliquem ante currum suum ducere Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 67, conduire qqn devant son char [de triomphe]; equitatum ante se misit Cæs. G. 1, 21, 3, il envoya devant lui sa cavalerie ; aliquem ante urbem producere Liv. 5, 27, 2, conduire qqn devant la ville ; provectus ante stationes equo Liv. 23, 47, 2, s’étant avancé à cheval en avant des postes
2 [temps] avant : ante horam decimam Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 41, avant la dixième heure ; perpaucis ante mortem diebus Cic. Br. 324, très peu de jours avant sa mort ; ante primam confectam vigiliam Cæs. G. 7, 3, 3, avant la fin de la première veille ; ante Romam conditam Cic. Tusc. 1, 3, avant la fondation de Rome ; novus ante me nemo Cic. Agr. 2, 3, aucun homme nouveau avant moi ; ante istum prætorem Cic. Verr. 2, pr. 1, 115, avant sa préture ; (cohors) quæ temere ante ceteras procurrerat Cæs. C. 1, 55, 3, (une cohorte) qui avait fait une charge inconsidérée avant les autres ; ante tubam Virg. En. 11, 424, avant que sonne la trompette ; ante lunam novam Cic. Att. 10, 5, 1, avant la nouvelle lune || diem statuo, quam ante si solverint... Cic. Att. 6, 1, 16, je fixe un jour (un terme) et s’ils s’acquittent avant... || ante omnia [= primum ] Val. Max. 3, 8, 1 ; Quint. 2, 15, 1, etc., avant tout, d’abord || au lieu de die tertio ante, de paucis ante diebus, on trouve ante diem tertium, ante paucos dies Liv. 23, 45, 1, trois jours, peu de jours auparavant ; ante dies paucos Liv. 33, 36, 9 ; paucos ante dies Liv. 23, 17, 11 ; dies ante paucos Liv. 31, 24, 5, peu de jours auparavant, cf. Cic. Tusc. 1, 4 ; Nep. Dat. 11, 2 ; ante quadriennium Tac. Agr. 45, quatre ans avant || au lieu de die quinto ante Idus Quinctiles, les Latins disaient ante diem quintum Idus Quinctiles Cic. Fam. 5, 9, 2, le cinquième jour avant les ides de juillet [écrit en abrégé a. d. V. Id. ] ; data a. d. IV. K. Nov. Cic. Fam. 7, 29, 2, [lettre] remise [au courrier] le quatrième jour avant les calendes de novembre ; in ante diem V. Kal. Novembris Cic. Cat. 1, 7, pour le cinquième jour avant les calendes de nov. ; ex ante diem III Non. Jun. usque ad prid. Kal. Sept. Cic. Att. 3, 17, 1, depuis le troisième jour avant les nones de juin jusqu’à la veille des calendes de septembre
3 [idée de précellence] avant, plus que : facundia Græcos, gloria belli Gallos ante Romanos fuisse Sall. C. 53, 3, [je savais] que les Grecs par l’éloquence, les Gaulois par la gloire guerrière avaient surpassé les Romains ; quem ante me diligo L. Cornelius Balbus d. Cic. Att. 8, 15 a, 2, que j’aime plus que moi-même, cf. Liv. 35, 14, 11 ; 40, 11, 5 ; 41, 28, 11, etc. ; Tac. H. 4, 55, etc.; longe ante alios acceptissimus Liv. 1, 15, 8, de beaucoup le plus aimé ; Virg. En. 1, 347 ; ante omnia Virg. B. 2, 62 ; Liv. 30, 30, 9, avant (plus que) tout ; scelere ante alios immanior omnes Virg. En. 1, 347, le plus monstrueux scélérat de tous les hommes.
     ante après son régime [chez les poètes] : Lucr. 3, 67 ; Tib. 2, 5, 66 ; Ov. F. 1, 503, etc. || en comp. ant-, anti-, antid-.

Latin > German (Georges)

ante (alte Form anti, wovon antidea, antideo; altind. ánti, gegenüber, angesichts, griech. ἀντί, gegenüber, got. and, entlang, auf, über), vorn, vor (Ggstz. post), Adv. u. Praep., I) Adv.: A) im Raume, vorn, voran (Ggstz. post, a tergo), ante aut post pugnare, Liv.: ut et aliquis ante et a tergo complures, qui sequantur, retinaculis eos (boves) contineant, Col.: coronatus stabit et ante calix, Tibull.: ante volans, Verg.: Morbos agit ante (vor sich her), Verg. – in der Bewegung, nach vorn, vorwärts (Ggstz. retro), ante ingredi, Cic. de fin. 5, 35: ante ferre gressum, Verg. Aen. 6, 677: neque post respiciens, neque ante prospiciens, Varr. sat. Men. 260.
B) übtr.: 1) in der Reihenfolge, vorher (s. Drak. Liv. 37, 6, 4), quem locum paulo ante perstrinxi, Cic.: fugitivus ille, ut dixeram ante, Plaut.: quem ante diximus, Liv.: ut od. sicut ante dictum est, Liv.: ante dictus perfuga, Amm.: dies triginta ante dicti, Scrib.: ante dicta medicamenta, Scrib. – 2) in der Zeit: a) in Beziehung auf eine andere vergangene Zeit, vor, vorher (wo dann die genauere Angabe der Zeit bald im Abl., bald im Acc. steht, nach dem gew. Gebrauch dieser Kasus in Zeitverhältnissen, s. Zumpt § 395 f.u. 476 ff.), ante actum tempus, Lucr.: ante acti anni, Tibull.: ante facta (Ggstz. futura), Turpil. fr. u. Vitr.: ante partum u. ante parta (perta), Komik.: ante ad te falsum scripseram, Cic.: multis ante saeculis, Cic.: aliquot annis ante, Liv.: paucis annis ante, Cic.: paucis ante annis, Sall.: paucis ante diebus, Cic. u. Sall.: paucis mensibus ante, Caes.: ante annum, ein Jahr vorher, Col.: ante annum Troianae cladis, ein Jahr vor Trojas Fall, Iustin. – Mit versch. Advv., multo ante, Ter., od. ante multo, Cic.: longe ante, aliquanto ante u. ante aliquanto, paulo ante, Cic.: haud multum ante, Tac.: ante posteaque, Plin.: non ante consulto senatu, Liv. – Oft folgt quam auf ante (mit dem es bei vermindertem Nachdruck zu einem Wort antequam verbunden wird), eher als, ehe, bevor (m. folg. Indicat. u. Coni., s. Weißenb. § 444 u. in bezug auf den Indicat. u. Coni. des Praes. die richtigere Ansicht b. Benecke Cic. Deiot. 7. p. 90), ut te ante videret, quam a vita discederet, Cic.: veniam ante, quam plane ex animo tuo effluo, Cic.: ante quam de incommodis dico, Cic.: anno ante, quam mortuus est, Cic.: neque defatigabor ante, quam percepero, Cic.: nec ante nos hinc moverimus, quam patres acciverint, Liv.: auch m. Indicat. Imperf., nec ante, quam vires ad standum in muris ferendaque arma deerant, expugnati sunt, Liv. 23, 30, 4 (vgl. 23, 48, 1). – Bei Dichtern zuw. quam ante, Lucr., Tibull. u.a.: ebenso bei Dichtern zuw. pleon. prius... ante... quam, Verg.: u. prius... quam... ante, Prop. – non ante (nicht eher) m. folg. dum (bis), non ante absolvit, dum omnes rediere captivi, Amm. 17, 10, 8. – b) in Beziehung auf die Folge od. Gegenwart, vormals, früher, ehemals, Ov. fast. 1, 337. – c) zur Angabe der Ordnung, vorerst, zuerst (für das klassische primum), mit folg. deinde od. tum, Cels.: ante..., deinde..., tum, Cels. – d) sehr selten adjekt., neque ignari sumus ante malorum (= τῶν πρὶν κακῶν), der frühern Leiden, Verg. Aen. 1, 198: u. so Ps. Quint. decl. 5, 15.
II) Praep. m. Acc., vor, A) im Raume: 1) eig.: post me erat Aegina, ante me Megara, Sulpic. in Cic. ep.: ut (simiae) catulos, quos impendio diligunt, ante se ferant, quoniam neglecti pone matrem haerent, Solin.: quemadmodum aliquando umbra antecedit, aliquando a tergo est, ita gloria aliquando ante nos est visendamque se praebet, aliquando in averso est, Sen.: ante pedes, Ter. u. Cic.: ante ostium, ante fores, Komik.: ante urbem, Turpil. fr.: ante oppidum, Cic.: alqm vinctum ante se agere, Nep. – bei Verben der Bewegung (s. Weißenb. Liv. 7, 41, 1; 26, 48, 10), ante signa progredi, Liv.: ante aram stetuere, Liv. – 2) übtr., zur Bezeichnung des Vorzugs in der Beurteilung od. Rangordnung (eig. die Bed. des prae, w.s., u. dah. seltener als dieses, v. Cicero u. Cäsar gar nicht gebraucht), vor, quem ante me diligo, vor mir, mehr als mich, Balb. in Cic. ep.: ante alqm od. alqd esse, jmd. od. etw. übertreffen, Sall. u.a. (s. Fabri Sall. Cat. 53, 3): u. so ante Iovem haberi, höher stehen als J., Curt. 8, 7 (25), 13. – Dah. sehr häufig a) in der Verbindung ante alios, Plaut., Liv. u.a. (s. Müller Liv. 1, 9, 12), ante omnes, Komik. u. Tac., ante cunctos, Plin. u.a., ante ceteros, Apul. flor. 16. p. 24, 17 Kr., zur Bezeichnung eines komparativ. Verhältnisses: dah. auch zuw. zur Steigerung neben Kompar. u. Superl., scelere ante alios immanior omnes, Verg.: ante alios miserandi magis, Liv.: longe ante alios acceptissimus militum animis, Liv.: ante cunctas mulieres longe deterrima coniuga, Apul. – b) ante omnia, α) vor allem andern, d.h. ehe alles andere geschieht, Liv. u.a. (vgl. Drak. Liv. 35, 34, 4). – β) komparativ, überaus, ganz besonders, ante omnia insignis, Liv.: dulces ante omnia Musae, die vor allem geliebten, überaus geliebten Musen, Verg.: ante omnia deplorati erant equites, Liv. – γ) im Anfang abzuhandelnder Gegenstände od. aufzuführender Gründe, zuvörderst, zunächst (ac primum quidem, καὶ πρῶτον μὲν οὖν), Quint. ö.; vgl. Spalding Quint. 4, 2, 4. Frotscher Quint. 10, 2, 4.
B) in der Zeit (Ggstz. post), vor, ante lucem, Komik., Cic. u.a.: ante hunc diem, Ter.: ante brumam, Ter.: cum ante meridiem dictioni operam dedissemus, post meridiem in Academiam descendimus, Cic.: verum nec ante tertium neque post quintum annum iuvencos domari placet, Col.: solus omnium ante se principum, Tac. hist. 1, 50: omnium ante se primus, Flor. 3, 5, 22: omnium ante se genitorum diligentissimus vitae, Plin. 25, 5. – m. Zeitadvv., multo ante noctem, Liv.: paulo ante lucem, Sulpic. in Cic. ep. – seinem Kasus (bes. bei qui) zuw. nachgesetzt, diem statuo, quam ante, Cic. – Häufig auch die Zeitbestimmung umschrieben, entweder durch eine Person, qui honos togato habitus ante me est nemini, Cic.: oder durch einen Gegenstand, der in jene Zeit fällt, ante has meas litteras, vor Empfang dieser meiner Briefe, Cic.: oder durch Angabe des Amtes einer Person, ante aedilitatem meam, Cic.: oft auch solchen Substst. zur Verdeutlichung ein partic. perf. od. futur. pass. beigefügt, ante hanc urbem conditam, Cic.: ante decemviros creatos, Liv. – Besondere Ausdrücke sind noch: a) ante rem, vor dem Kampfe, Liv. 9, 40, 5. – b) ante finem,vor Ende, Plin. ep. 1, 13, 2. – c) ante annum, vor einem Jahre, ein Jahr vorher, Plin. ep. 8, 23, 7. Col. arb. 4, 2: so auch ante quadriennium, vier Jahre vorher, Tac. Agr. 45, 6: ante aliquot dies, einige Tage vorher, Nep. Dat. 11, 2 (dazu Nipp.). – d) ante tempus, d.i. α) vor der rechten Zeit, Liv. 31, 36, 3. – β) vor der festgesetzten, gesetzlichen Zeit, Cic. u. Suet. – e) ante diem (poet.), d.i. α) vor der Zeit, Ov. u. Stat. – β) vor der vom Schicksal bestimmten Zeit, Verg. u. Ov.: u. so ante annos suos, Ov. am. 2, 2, 46. – f) ante id tempus, bis zu dieser Zeit, quod ante id tempus accidit nulli, Caes.: qui honos huic uni ante id tempus contigit, Nep.: ebenso armorum quantum quaeque civitas domi quodque ante tempus (bis zu welcher Zeit) efficiat, constituit, Caes. – u. ante hoc, bis dahin, Tac. Germ. 13. – ante hunc diem numquam,bisher nie, Plaut. u. Ter.: dass. non ante usquam prius, Plaut. – g) ante certam diem, vor Ablauf eines bestimmten Tages, binnen einer bestimmten Zeit, equites ante certam diem decederent, Cic.: ante quem diem iturus sit, Caes. – h) ante verb. mit dies (abgekürzt a.d.) und einer Ordnungszahl zur Angabe des Datums u. zwar nicht des vorhergehenden, sondern eben dieses Tages, zB. a.d. VIII Kalendas Decembres, den 8. (nicht den 9.) Tag vor den Kalenden des Dezembers, d.i. den 24. November, Cic.: a.d. IV Id. Mart. (ante diem quartum Idus Martias), d.i. den 12. März, Cic. Urspr. gehört ante zu Kalendas u. man sagte entweder ante die octavo Kalendas (d.i. octavo die ante Kalendas) od. ante diem octavum Kalendas (wie auch wir sagen: am achten od. den achten); letztere Redeweise wurde die herrschende, u. ante verwuchs mit dem diem so sehr, daß ihm (gleichs. antediem, wie proconsule), noch die Präpositionen in u. ex beigefügt werden konnten, u. so sagte man in ante diem (differre u. dgl.), Cic. u. Liv.: ex ante diem, von dem Tage an, Varr., Cic. u.a. Vgl. Manuzzi Cic. ep. 3, 12. Benecke Cic. Cat. 1, 7. p. 34. – / Im Vulgärlat. m. Abl. zB. ante oculis omnium, Itala 2. Mach. 2, 23. – ante nachgestellt, caput ante, Tibull. 2, 5, 66.

Spanish > Greek

εἰς, ἔμπροσθεν, ἔναντι, ἐν, ἀπό, ἐνώπιος, ἐναντίος

Latin > English

ante ADV :: before, previously, first, before this, earlier; in front/advance of; forwards
ante ante PREP ACC :: in front/presence of, in view; before (space/time/degree); over against, facing