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spiritus

Ἦθος ἀνθρώπῳ δαίμων -> A man's character is his fate
Heraclitus, fr. B 119 Diels

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

spīrĭtus: ūs (scanned spĭrĭtus, Sedul. Hymn. 1
I fin.; dat. SPIRITO, Inscr. Orell. 3030; gen., dat., and abl. plur. only eccl. and late Lat., e. g. spirituum, Vulg. Marc. 6, 7: spiritibus, Aug. Serm. 216, 11 fin.; Vulg. Luc. 8, 2), m. spiro, a breathing or gentle blowing of air, a breath, breeze (syn.: aura, flatus).
I Lit.
   A In gen.: spiritum a vento modus separat: vehementior enim spiritus ventus est, invicem spiritus leviter fluens aër, Sen. Q. N. 5, 13, 4; cf. Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 5: spiritus Austri Imbricitor, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 2 (Ann. v. 423 Vahl.), Cic. poët. N. D. 2, 44, 114: Boreae, Verg. A. 12, 365: quo spiritus non pervenit, Varr. R. R. 1, 57, 2; cf.: silentis vel placidi spiritus dies, Col. 3, 19 fin.: alvus cum multo spiritu redditur, Cels. 2, 7 med.—
   B In partic.
   1    The air: imber et ignis, spiritus et gravis terra, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 37 Müll. (Ann. v. 511 Vahl.): proximum (igni) spiritus, quem Graeci nostrique eodem vocabulo aëra appellant, Plin. 2, 5, 4, § 10: quid tam est commune quam spiritus vivis? Cic. Rosc. Am. 26, 72; cf. Quint. 12, 11, 13: potestne tibi haec lux, Catilina, aut hujus caeli spiritus esse jucundus? Cic. Cat. 1, 6, 15.—
   2    An exhalation, smell, odor: spiritus unguenti suavis, Lucr. 3, 222: foedi odoris, Cels. 5, 26, 31 fin.: florum, Gell. 9, 4, 10: sulfuris, Pall. Aug. 9, 1; cf. Hor. C. 3, 11, 19.—
   3    Breathed air, a breath: quojus tu legiones difflavisti spiritu, Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 17.—Absol.: (equus) saepe jubam quassit simul altam: Spiritus ex animā calida spumas agit albas, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 3 (Ann. v. 507 Vahl.): creber spiritus, Lucr. 6, 1186: ardentes oculi atque attractus ab alto Spiritus, Verg. G. 3, 505: petitus imo spiritus, Hor. Epod. 11, 10: in pulmonibus inest raritas ... ad hauriendum spiritum aptissima, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 136: diffunditur spiritus per arterias, id. ib. 2, 55, 138: animantium vita tenetur, cibo, potione, spiritu, id. ib. 2, 54, 134: si spiritum ducit, vivit, id. Inv. 1, 46, 86: tranquillum atque otiosum spiritum ducere, id. Arch. 12, 30: longissima est complexio verborum, quae volvi uno spiritu potest, id. de Or. 3, 47, 182: versus multos uno spiritu pronuntiare, id. ib. 1, 61, 261: spiritus nec crebro receptus concidat sententiam, nec eo usque trahatur, donec deficiat, Quint. 11, 3, 53: lusit vir egregius (Socrates) extremo spiritu, Cic. Tusc. 1, 40, 96; cf. id. Sest. 37, 79: quorum usque ad extremum spiritum est provecta prudentia, id. Sen. 9, 27: quos idem Deus de suis spiritibus figuravit, Lact. Epit. 42, 3.—With gen.: ut filiorum suorum postremum spiritum ore excipere liceret, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 118; Cels. 4, 4; 3, 27; Col. 6, 9, 3; Quint. 9, 4, 68; 11, 3, 32; 11, 3, 53 sq.—
   C Transf.
   1    In abstr., a breathing: aspera arteria excipiat animam eam, quae ducta sit spiritu, Cic. N. D. 2, 54, 136; cf. id. ib. 2, 55, 138: aër spiritu ductus alit et sustentat animantes, id. ib. 2, 39, 101: crevit onus neque habet quas ducat spiritus auras, Ov. M. 12, 517.—Esp.: spiritum intercludere (includere), to stop the breath, suffocate, choke, etc.: lacrimae spiritum et vocem intercluserunt, Liv. 40, 16, 1; 40, 24, 7; so, includere, id. 21, 58, 4.—
   2    The breath of a god, inspiration: haec fieri non possent, nisi ea uno divino et continuato spiritu continerentur, by a divine inspiration, Cic. N. D. 2, 7, 19; 3, 11, 28; cf.: poëtam quasi divino quodam spiritu inflari, id. Arch. 8, 18.—
   3    The breath of life, life: eum spiritum, quem naturae debeat, patriae reddere, Cic. Phil. 10, 10, 20: vos vero qui extremum spiritum in victoriā effudistis, id. ib. 14, 12, 32: dum spiritus hos regit artus, Verg. A. 4, 336; cf. Hor. C. 4, 8, 14: ne cum sensu doloris aliquo spiritus auferatur, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 45, § 118: aliquem spiritu privare, Vell. 2, 87, 2: merula spiritum reddidit, to expire, die, id. 2, 22, 2: spiritus tenues vanescat in auras, Ov. H. 12, 85: non effundere mihi spiritum videbar, sed tradere, Sen. Ep. 78, 4: novissimum spiritum per ludibrium effundere, Tac. H. 3, 66 fin.; cf. supra, I. B.—
   4    Poet.,= suspirium, a sigh, Prop. 1, 16, 32; 2, 29 (3, 27), 38.—
   5    In gram., a breathing or aspiration (asper and lenis), Prisc. p. 572 P.; Aus. Idyll. 12 de Monos. Graec. et Lat. 19. —
   6    The hiss of a snake, Verg. Cul. 180.—
II Trop.
   A (Class.) A haughty spirit, haughtiness, pride, arrogance; also, spirit, high spirit, energy, courage (esp. freq. in the plur.; syn. animi).
   (a)    Sing. (in the best prose only in gen. and abl., which are wanting in plur.): regio spiritu, Cic. Agr. 2, 34, 93: quem hominem! quā irā! quo spiritu! id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 2, § 6: illos ejus spiritus Siciliensis, id. Verr. 2, 3, 9, § 22: tantum fiduciae ac spiritūs, Caes. B. C. 3, 72: filia Hieronis, inflata adhuc regiis animis ac muliebri spiritu, Liv. 24, 22: patricii spiritūs animus, id. 4, 42, 5: ex magnitudine rerum spiritum ducat, Quint. 1, 8, 5: corpore majorem rides Turbonis in armis Spiritum et incessum, Hor. S. 2, 3, 311: cecidit spiritus ille tuus, Prop. 2, 3, 2: spiritu divino tactus, Liv. 5, 22, 5: non negaverim fuisse alti spiritūs viros, Sen. Ep. 90, 14.—
   (b)    Plur.: res gestae, credo, meae me nimis extulerunt ac mihi nescio quos spiritus attulerunt, Cic. Sull. 9, 27: noratis animos ejus ac spiritus tribunicios, etc., id. Clu. 39, 109; cf.: unius tribuni militum animos ac spiritus, id. Imp. Pomp. 22, 66: tantos sibi spiritus, sumpserat, ut ferendus non videretur, Caes. B. G. 1, 33 fin. in re militari sumere, id. ib. 2, 4: nam Dion regios spiritus repressit, Nep. Dion, 5, 5: cum spiritus plebes sumpsisset, Liv. 4, 54: si cui honores subdere spiritus potuerunt, id. 7, 40: remittant spiritus, comprimant animos suos, sedent arrogantiam, etc., Cic. Fl. 22, 53: spiritus feroces, Liv. 1, 31: quorum se vim ac spiritus fregisse, id. 26, 24: cohibuit spiritus ejus Thrasea, Tac. A. 16, 26: Antipater, qui probe nosset spiritus ejus, Curt. 6, 1, 19.—
   B (Mostly poet. and in post-Aug. prose.) Spirit, soul, mind.
   (a)    Sing.: quoslibet occupat artus Spiritus, Ov. M. 15, 167; Tac. A. 16, 34: spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus artem Carminis dedit, poetic spirit or inspiration, Hor. C. 4, 6, 29; cf.: mihi Spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae Parca non mendax dedit, id. ib. 2, 16, 38: qualis Pindarico spiritus ore tonat, Prop. 3, 17 (4, 16), 40: imperator generosi spiritŭs, Plin. 8, 40, 61, § 149: avidus (i. e. τὸ ἐπιθυμητικόν, the desiring, coveting soul), Hor. C. 2, 2, 10: quidam comoedia necne poëma Esset, quaesivere: quod acer spiritus ac vis Nec verbis nec rebus inest, Hor. S. 1, 4, 46: majoris operis ac spiritūs, Quint. 1, 9, 15: alti spiritūs plena, id. 10, 1, 44: virtus magni spiritus est et recti, Sen. Ep. 74, 29: qui spiritus illi, Quis vultus vocisque sonus, Verg. A. 5, 648.—
   (b)    Plur.: Coriolanus hostiles jam tum spiritus gerens, Liv. 2, 35; Curt. 5, 8, 17.—*
   b Transf. (like anima, and the Engl. soul), a beloved object, Vell. 2, 123 fin.—
   2    Spiritus, personified, a spirit (late Lat.); so, esp., Spiritus Sanctus or simply Spiritus, the Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit, Cod. Just. 1, 1, 1; Aus. Ephem. 2, 18: jurare per Deum et per Christum et per Spiritum Sanctum, Veg. 2, 5: nocens ille Spiritus, an evil spirit, Lact. 4, 27, 12: Spiritus nigri, evil spirits, Sedul. Carm. 3, 41.

Latin > French (Gaffiot 2016)

spīrĭtŭs,⁸ ūs, m. (spiro),
1 souffle [de l’air, du vent] : Sen. Nat. 5, 13, 4 ; Virg. En. 12, 365
2 air : Plin. 2, 10 ; quid tam est commune quam spiritus vivis ? Cic. Amer. 72, est-il chose plus commune que l’air pour les êtres vivants ? hujus cæli spiritus Cic. Cat. 1, 15, l’air de ce ciel que nous respirons ici] || air aspiré (respiré): spiritum haurire Cic. Nat. 2, 136, respirer ; spiritus diffunditur per arterias Cic. Nat. 2, 138, l’air se répand dans les artères ; spiritum ducere Cic. Pomp. 33, respirer, vivre ; [fig.] nullum otiosum spiritum ducere Cic. Arch. 30, n’avoir pas un moment de vie tranquille || souffle, respiration, haleine : animantium vita tenetur cibo, potione, spiritu Cic. Nat. 2, 134, la vie d’un animal est entretenue par trois fonctions, manger, boire, respirer ; alicujus postremum spiritum ore excipere Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 118, recueillir sur les lèvres le dernier souffle de qqn ; uno spiritu Cic. de Or. 3, 182, d’une seule haleine ; spiritum intercludere Liv. 21, 58, 4, couper la respiration || acte de la respiration : aer ou anima spiritu ducitur Cic. Nat. 2, 101 ; 2, 138, l’air est amené par la respiration est aspiré], cf. Cic. Nat. 2, 136
3 souffle = vie : Cic. Phil. 10, 20 ; Verr. 2, 5, 118, etc.; Virg. En. 4, 336
4 a) [poét.] = soupir : Hor. Epo. 11, 10 ; Prop. 1, 16, 32 ; b) [gramm.] aspiration : Prisc. Gramm. 2, 12 ; Aus. Idyll. 12, 12, 19 ; c) exhalaison, émanation, odeur : Lucr. 3, 222 ; Cels. Med. 5, 26, 31 ; Gell. 9, 4, 10
5 [métaph.] souffle, inspiration : quasi divino quodam spiritu inflari Cic. Arch. 18, être pénétré comme d’une sorte de souffle divin, cf. Cic. Nat. 2, 19 ; 3, 28
6 [fig.] a) suffisance, assurance, présomption, arrogance, orgueil ; [au sing.] : qua adrogantia ! quo spiritu ! Cic. Phil. 8, 24, avec quelle arrogance ! quel orgueil ! his rebus tantum fiduciæ ac spiritus Pompeianis accessit, ut Cæs. C. 3, 72, 1, cet avantage donna tant de confiance et de suffisance aux Pompéiens, que..., cf. Cic. Q. 1, 2, 6 ; Liv. 24, 22, 8, etc.; Hor. S. 2, 3, 311 || au pl.: Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 75 ; 3, 22 ; Clu. 109 ; Sulla 27 ; Pomp. 66 ; Nep. Dion 5, 5 ; Liv. 2, 35, 8 ; 26, 24, etc. ; tantos sibi spiritus sumere, ut Cæs. G. 1, 33, 5, concevoir un tel orgueil que, cf. Cæs. G. 2, 4, 3 ; Liv. 4, 54 ; b) disposition d’esprit, sentiment : hostiles spiritus gerere Liv. 2, 35, 6, nourrir des sentiments hostiles, cf. Liv. 1, 31, 6 ; Curt. 5, 8, 17 ; Sen. Ep. 90, 44 ; avidus spiritus Hor. O. 2, 2, 10, esprit avide, avidité : c) souffle créateur, esprit poétique, génie, inspiration : spiritum Phœbus mihi dedit Hor. O. 4, 6, 29, Phœbus m’a donné le souffle (l’inspiration), cf. O. 2, 16, 38 ; d) [poét.] esprit, âme : Ov. M. 15, 167 ; Tac. Ann. 16, 35 || esprit = personne : Vell. 2, 123, 2 ; Val. Max. 1, 1, 14 ; e) le Saint-Esprit : Eccl. spiritus Prud. Cath. 10, 8 ; Sedul. Eleg. 110 || n. spiritum Itala Act. 16, 7 ; CIL 13, 1898.

Latin > German (Georges)

spīritus, ūs, m. (spiro), der Hauch, I) der Hauch = Lufthauch, Luftzug, die wehende bewegte Luft, 1) übh.: spiritus Boreae, Verg.: spiritus purior, Frontin. aqu.: semper aër spiritu aliquo movetur, Plin. ep.: quo spiritus non pervenit, Varro: circumfusus nobis spiritus, Quint.: alvus redditur cum multo spiritu, Winden, Blähungen, Cels.: u. so digerere spiritum, die Blähungen abtreiben, Cels. – 2) das Einatmen der Luft, das Atemholen, der Atem, caeli, Cic.: aër spiritu ductus, Cic. – und die Luft, insofern sie eingeatmet wird, quid tam est commune quam spiritus vivis? Cic.: noxius caeli spiritus, ungesunde Luft, Pallad. – 3) der Atem, Hauch, angustior, kurzer Atem, Cic.: uno spiritu, in einem Atem, Cic.: spiritum reddere, den Atem von sich geben, Cic.: spiritum movere, atmen, Cels.: spiritum trahere, Atem holen, Cels., Curt. u.a. (s. Mützell Curt. 3, 6 [15], 10): spiritum intercludere, Liv. u. Curt.: spiritum includere, Liv. u. Plin.: spiritum intercipere, Sen. rhet.: quos idem deus de suis spiritibus figuravit, Lact. epit. 42, 3. – insbes., der Lebenshauch, das Leben, spiritum auferre, Cic.: extremum spiritum effundere in victoria, Cic.: ultimum spiritum reddere, seinen Geist aufgeben, Vell.: u. so spiritum patriae reddere, Cic., u. spiritum ponere, deponere, dimittere, Eccl. (s. Bünem. Lact. 4, 26, 31): ultimum spiritum trahere, Sen.: sub acerbissimi carnificis arbitrio spiritum ducere, hinschmachten, Liv.: reliquum spiritum exhaurire (v. einem Schlag), Cic.: filiorum suorum postremum spiritum ore excipere, Cic.: quorum usque ad extremum spiritum est provecta prudentia, Cic.: non effundere mihi spiritum videtur, sed tradere, Sen. – dah. a) das Seufzen, Hor. epod. 11, 10. Prop. 1, 16, 32. – b) das Zischen der Schlange, Ps. Verg. cul. 182 R. – c) als gramm. t.t., der Spiritus (asper od. lenis), Auson. edyll. 12. de litt. monos. 19. p. 138 Schenkl: sp. asper vel lenis, Prisc. 2, 12. – d) der Ton, Klang, die Stimme, Quint. – e) ein durch den Atem bestimmtes Zeitteilchen, Taktteilchen, Cic. de or. 3, 184. – 4) der Duft, Dunft, die Ausdünstung, Lucr. u. Cels.: sp. pestilens, Capit.: sp. florum, Gell.: aëris spiritus graves, böse Wetter, Schwaden in der Erde, Vitr. – II) prägn., der Geist, A) die Seele, 1) appell.: a) eig.: morte carens spiritus, Ov.: dum spiritus hos regit artus, Verg. – b) meton., der Geist, die Seele = Person, carissimi sibi spiritus, Vell. 2, 123, 2: religiosissimus spiritus tam crudeliter vexatus, Val. Max. 1, 1, 14. – 2) personif., der Geist, Sen. ep. 41, 2: Spiritus sanctus, Auson. ephem. 4. parecb. 18. p. 4 Schenkl. Cod. Iust. 1, 1, 1: u. so iurare per Deum et Christum et sanctum Spiritum (von den Soldaten, bei der Vereidigung), Veget. mil. 2, 5: nocens ille Spiritus, böse Geist, Lact. 4, 27, 12: Spiritus nigri, die bösen Geister, Sedul. carm. 3, 41. – B) übtr.: 1) der hohe Geist, die hohen Gedanken, im Guten u. Bösen, hochstrebender, kühner, unternehmender Sinn, dah. auch Übermut, Trotz, Stolz usw., qui spiritus illi (Dat.), qui vultus etc., Geist, Majestät, Ansehen, Verg.: spiritus regius, Cic.: spiritus tribunicii, Cic.: spiritus patricii, Kastengeist, Adelstolz, Liv.: ingentis spiritus vir, Liv.: spir. Dolabellae, anmaßendes Benehmen, Cic.: res gestae mihi nescio quos spiritus attulerunt, Cic.: tantos sibi spiritus, tantam arrogantiam sumpserat, ut ferendus non videretur, Caes.: etiam minus barbaro atque impotenti animo spiritus facere, übermütig machen, Liv.: altiores spiritus sumere, höher hinauswollen, Tac.: remittere spiritus, comprimere animos suos, sedare arrogantiam, Cic.: multis saepe bellis fractos spiritus esse, Liv.: cetera maioris operis ac spiritus, von größerer Wichtigkeit und höherer Art, Quint. 1, 9, 6. – 2) die Gesinnung, hostiles, Liv. 2, 35, 6. – 3) der Unwille, die Erbitterung, der Zorn, spiritus alcis mitigare, Tac. ann. 13, 21. – 4) der Hauch der Begeisterung, der Geistesaufschwung, die Begeisterung, der Enthusiasmus, das Feuer, divinus, Liv.: poëticus, Quint.: mihi spiritum Graiae tenuem Camenae Parca dedit, Hor.: carent libri spiritu illo propter quem maiora eadem illa, cum aguntur, quam cum leguntur, videri solent, Cic. – / spĭrĭtus gemessen bei Prud. cath. 10, 8. Sedul. hymn. 1, 100. – Genet. Plur. spirituum, Prisc. de vent. (Rose Anecd. 2. p. 53, 10): Dat. od. Abl. Plur. spiritibus, Vulg. Luc. 6, 18; 7, 21; 8, 2 u.a. Augustin. serm. 216, 11 extr. – Nbf. spiritum, ī, n., Ital. act. apost. 16, 7, wov. Abl. spirito, Corp. inscr. Lat. 13, 1898.

Latin > English

spiritus spiritus N M :: breath, breathing, air, soul, life