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dum

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Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

dum:
I conj. [for dium, acc. from dius; cf. diu, Corss. Ausspr. 2, 856], denotes the temporal relation of two actions to cach other,
I As contemporaneous, or,
II As in immediate succession, so that with the commencement of one action the other ceases.
I As contemporaneous.
   A Without respect to the limits of the two actions, while, whilst, during the time in which.
   1    In gen., construed with the indicative, except in oratio obliqua, where the subjunctive was sometimes used. In Aug. poets and late prose the subjunctive often stands in oratio directa, v. the following).
   (a)    Indic. praes.: dum cum hac usuraria Uxore mihi nunc morigero, haec curata sint Fac sis, Plaut. Am. 3, 3, 25; so id. Aul. 4, 2, 14; id. Bacch. 4, 7, 19; Ter. Heaut. 2, 2, 11; Cic. Clu. 32 fin.; Verg. E. 3, 75; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 190 et saep.— In the praes. histor.: dum haec loquimur, interea loci ad macellum ubi advenimus, etc., Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 24; id. Phorm. 5, 9, 18; Cic. de Or. 2, 4, 15; id. Div. in Caec. 17, 56: dum haec geruntur, Caesari nuntiatum est, etc., Caes. B. G. 1, 46, 1; cf. these forms of transition, id. ib. 3, 17, 1; 4, 32, 1; 4, 34, 3; 5, 22, 1; 6, 7, 1; 7, 57, 1; id. B. C. 1, 56, 1; 2, 1, 1 et saep. dum ea conquiruntur et conferuntur, nocte intermissa circiter hominum milia VI ad Rhenum contenderunt, Caes. B. G. 1, 27, 4; cf. id. B. C. 1, 37, 1; id. ib. 1, 36, 1; Liv. 21, 7, 1; Verg. G. 4, 559.—In the imperf.: dum haec in Appulia gerebantur, Samnites ... urbem non tenuerunt, Liv. 10, 36 fin.; 21, 53; 41, 14; Nep. Hann. 2, 4; Tac. Agr. 41; cf.: dum is in aliis rebus erat occupatus, Cic. Rosc. Am. 32, 91—In the fut.; nunc animum advortite Dum argumentum hujus eloquar comoediae, Plaut. Am. prol. 96.—In the perf.: dum Cyri et Alexandri similis esse voluit, Crassorum inventus est dissimillimus, Cic. Brut. 81, 292; so id. Mur. 27, 55; id. Fin. 2, 13; id. Phil. 14, 12, 33; id. Att. 1, 16, 2; Nep. Reg. 2, 2 al.—In the pluperf.: dum in unam partem oculos animosque hostium certamen averterat, pluribus locis scalis capitur murus, Liv. 32, 24.—In the fut. perf.: bellum ingens geret Italia... Tertia dum Latio regnantem viderit aestas, Verg. A. 1, 265.—Prov.: dum loqueris, i. e. this instant, Petr. 99.—In the oratio obliqua: dic, hospes, Spartae, nos te hic vidisse jacentes, Dum sanctis patriae legibus obsequimur, Poëta ap. Cic. Tusc. 1, 42, 101; Liv. 2, 57; 26, 16; Tac. A. 15, 59; id. H. 1, 33; Ov. M. 4, 776 et saep.—
   (b)    Subj. In oratio obliqua: dixisti, dum Planci in me meritum verbis extollerem, me arcem facere e cloaca, Cic. Planc. 40; so id. de Or. 1, 41 fin.; id. Mur. 24; id. Att. 5, 17, 3; Sall. C. 7, 6; Tac. H. 4, 17 fin. al.—In oratio recta: o quotiens ausae, caneret dum valle sub alta, Rumpere mugitu carmina docta boves, Tib. 2, 3, 19: dum intentus in eum se rex totus averteret, etc., Liv. 1, 40, 7: dum ea in Samnio gererentur, id. 10, 18, 1; Ov. Pont. 3, 3, 2; Verg. G. 4, 457; Mart. 1, 22, 1; Hirt. B. Hisp. 23; Aur. Vict. Vir. Ill. 35; id. Caes. 39; Hyg. Fab. 12 al.—
   b When the principal action is an immediate and sudden sequence of that described in the clause with dum, subito or repente is often used in the principal clause: dum tempus teritur, repente milites, etc., Liv. 29, 9, 5: dum advenientes filia interrogat, repente in osculis, etc. Suet. Aug. 99: dum Appium orno, subito sum factus accusatoris ejus socer, Cic. Att. 6, 6, 1; Hirt. B. Afr. 61.—
   c When the actions are simply presented as contemporaneous, interea, jam or interea jam is often used in the principal clause: dum haec mecum reputo, accersitur lavatum interea virgo, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 44; Cic. Quint. 6, 28: dum ea Romani parant, jam Saguntum oppugnabatur, Liv. 21, 7, 1; cf. also: dum ... interim, Plaut. Trin. 1, 1, 8; id. Men. 1, 3, 31; Liv. 21, 47, 7 al.—
   2    Esp., of duration in the present, now, yet.
   a In combination with etiam primum, and esp. freq. with the negations non, nec, ne, haud, nihil, nullus, nemo, v. h vv.—
   b Colloq., as an enclitic with imperatives and interjections (by some separately written ades dum, abi dum, etc, but v. Ritschl, Opusc Phil p. 567 sq.), orig, acc of time, a moment, a second, a little Sosia adesdum, paucis te volo, Ter. And 1, 1, 2 abidum, id. Heaut. 2, 3, 8 circumspicedum, Plaut Trin. 1, 2, 109: dicdum, Ter. Hec 5, 3, 5 facitodum, id. Heaut 3, 2, 39 iteradum, Poëta ap. Cic. Att. 14, 14 jubedum, Plaut. Rud. 3, 5, 7: manedum, id. Bacch. 4, 6, 24; Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 4: memoradum, Plaut. Poen. 5, 2, 103: tacedum, id. Men. 2, 2, 73: tangedum, id. Rud. 3, 5, 5 al.: agedum (most freq.), id. Am. 2, 2, 151; 5, 1, 29; id. As. 4, 1, 1; 5, 1, 1 et saep. (for which, agidum, id. Trin. 2, 2, 89 Ritschl ad loc.); Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 27; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 69; id. Hec. 3, 1, 35; id. Phorm. 5, 3, 1; Cic. Sull. 26; Liv. 7, 9; 9, 16 al.; Cat. 63, 78; Stat. Th. 7, 126 al.: agitedum, Liv. 3, 62 Drak.; 5, 52; 7, 34 fin.: cedodum, Ter. Phorm. 2, 2, 15: ehodum, id. And. 1, 2, 13; 2, 1, 24; 3, 5, 10; id. Eun. 2, 3, 68; also in Plaut. in enumerations: primumdum (= Gr. πρῶτον μέν), Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 26; id. Most. 2, 1, 53; id. Trin. 1, 2, 61 al.—
   B With respect to the temporal limit of both actions, i. q. tamdiu quam or usque eo, as long as, while.
   1    Lit. (with indic. when the duration of the action in the principal clause is alone implied, except in the oratio obliqua).—In praes.: bene factum a vobis, dum vivitis, non abscedet, Cato ap. Gell. 16, 1 fin.; so Cic. Lael. 4, 14; id. de Sen. 23, 86; id. Fin. 3, 2, 9; Caes. B. G. 7, 50 fin. al.—In fut.: quid illos opinamini animi habuisse atque habituros, dum vivent? Cato ap. Gell. 10, 13, 17; Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 103; Cic. Rosc. Am. 32 fin.; id. Leg. 1, 1, 2; Verg. A. 1, 607 sq. et saep.—
   (b)    Subj., often, when the clause with dum expresses a desired end, or refers to an indefinite future: non tibi venit in mentem, Si, dum vivas, tibi bene facias, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 76: pars, dum vires suppeterent, eruptionem censebant, Caes. B. G. 7, 77, 2: ut sua sponte, dum sine periculo liceret, excederet Gadibus, id. B. C. 2, 20, 3: hoc unum esse tempus de pace agendi, dum sibi uterque confideret ut pares ambo viderentur, id. ib. 3, 10, 7: de quo (sc. animo) dum disputarem, tuam mihi dari vellem, Cotta, eloquentiam, Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 147 Bait. (v. Roby, Gram. 2, 284 sq.). —
   b With tamdiu, tantum, tantummodo, tantisper, usque; or opp. postea, postquam, deinde, ubi, nunc, etc.—With tamdiu, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3; id. Cat. 3, 7; id. de Sen. 12, 41; id. Tusc. 5, 33 fin.; id. Att. 9, 6, 5 al.—With tantum, Liv. 27, 42.—With tantummodo, Sall. J. 53, 3.—With tantisper, Plaut. Truc. prol. 11; Ter. Ad. 1, 1, 44; id. Heaut. 1, 1, 54.—With usque, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 5: dum ... postea, id. Mur. 12, 26—dum ... postea quam, Caes. B. G. 7, 82, 1; Cic. Rosc. Am. 43 fin.—dum ... postquam, Sall. J. 53, 3; Liv. 21, 13; cf. Ter. And. 1, 1, 27—dum ... deinde, Cic. Att. 9, 6, 5; Liv. 27, 42, 13—dum ... sed ubi, Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 37; Caes. B. C. 1, 51, 5—dum ... nunc, Ter. And. 1, 2, 17; Cic. Ac. 1, 4, 11.—For tamdiu ... dum, less freq. dum ... dum, as long as ... so long: sic virgo dum intacta manet, dum cara suis, Cat. 62, 45 and 56; cf. Quint. 9, 3, 16: dum habeat, dum amet, Plaut. Truc. 2, 1, 23 (al. tum).—
   c In Plautus repeatedly with an emphatic quidem, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 57; 5, 2, 20; id. Bacch. 2, 2, 48; id. Merc. 2, 3, 53; id. Ps. 1, 5, 92.—
   2    Transf.
   a In conditional relations as a restrictive particle, like quatenus and duntaxat, so long as, if so be that, provided that, if only (so regularly connected with the subjunctive; freq. in prose and poetry): dum pereas, nihil interduo aiant vivere, Plaut. Capt. 3, 5, 36: Ly. Concede, inspiciam quid sit scriptum. Cu. Maxime, Tuo arbitratu, dum auferam abs te id quod peto, id. Curc. 3, 58; cf.: dum res maneant, verba fingant arbitratu suo, Cic. Fin. 5, 29 fin.: oderint, dum metuant, Att. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 28, 97: licet lascivire, dum nihil metuas, Cic. Rep. 1, 40 et saep.; in the imperf.: qui sese in cruciatum dari cuperet, dum de patris morte quaereretur, id. Rosc. Am. 41, 119; Sall. C. 40, 4; id. J. 68, 3; Quint. 10, 1, 33: An. Non pudet vanitatis? Do. Minime, dum ob rem, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 41; so without a verb, Cic. Fam. 7, 9; id. Ac. 2, 32, 104; Quint. 4, 1, 70; 9, 4, 58; 10, 3, 5; cf.: dum eatenus, id. 1, 11, 1.—
   (b)    With an emphatic modo, and often in one word, dummodo: aeque istuc facio dummodo Eam des, quae sit quaestuosa, etc., Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 189; id. Aul. 2, 2, 62; id. Mil. 2, 2, 98; Cic. Rep. 3, 3; id. Off. 3, 21; id. Cat. 1, 5; 9; Prop. 3, 17, 17 (4, 16, 17 M.); Ov. F. 5, 242 al.; cf.: sin autem jejunitatem ... dummodo sit polita, dum urbana, dum elegans, in Attico genere ponit, etc., Cic. Brut. 82, 285: dummodo sit dives, barbarus ille placet, Ov. A. A. 2, 276.—Separated by other words: mea nil refert, dum patiar modo, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 28: certumst pati, dum illum modo habeam mecum, id. Heaut. 3, 1, 57; Val. Fl. 5, 265.—
   (g)    With tamen, and, in Plautus (cf. above, 1. c.), with quidem.—With tamen, Cic. de Or. 2, 77, 314; Cels. 3, 4; Quint. 1, 1, 11; 2, 12, 7; 8 prooem. § 32; Dig. 39, 22, 4.—With quidem, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 20; id. Aul. 2, 2, 34; cf. the foll. number.—
   (d)    In negative conditional clauses, with ne, so long as not, provided that not, if only not: VTEI. SENATVS. NOSTER. DECERNERET. DVM. NE. MINVS. SENATORIBVS. C. ADESENT., S. C. de Bac. (thrice): id faciat saepe, dum ne lassus fiat, Cato, R. R. 5, 4; Plaut. Trin. 4, 2, 137; cf. id. Bacch. 4, 8, 26; id. Curc. 1, 1, 36; Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 12; Cic. Att. 6, 1, 4; 8, 11, B fin.; Liv. 3, 21 Drak.; 28, 40; Ov. H. 3, 81.—So too, dummodo ne, Cic. de Or. 3, 48, 185; id. Fam. 10, 25, 2; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 7; id. Att. 12, 45 al.: dum quidem ne, Plaut. Merc. 2, 3, 89.—
   b With a causal accessory notion, until, long enough for, etc (very rare, only with subjunctive) obsidio deinde per paucos dies magis quam oppugnatio fuit, dum vulnus ducis curaretur, Liv 21, 8; cf. id. 24, 40; Suet Aug. 78 fin. nam se quoque moveri finget, dum aditum sibi ad aures faciat, Quint. 4, 1, 46.
II In immediate suceession, until, until that (with the subjunctive or the indicative, as the idea of aim or simply of time predominates; cf. e.g.: quid dicam, quantus amor bestiarum sit in educandis custodiendisque iis, quae procreaverunt, usque ad eum finem, dum possint se ipsa defendere? Cic. N. D. 2, 51 fin.: ea mansit in condicione atque pacto usque ad eum finem, dum judices rejecti sunt, id. Verr. 1, 6, 16; cf. Ter. Heaut. 3, 2, 32; id. Eun. 1, 2, 126; Liv. 4, 21 fin.; 27, 42. Cicero generally, Caesar always employs the subjunctive).
   (a)    Subj.: is dum veniat, sedens ibi opperibere, Plaut. Bacch. 1, 1, 14; cf.: paulisper mane, dum edormiscat unum somnum, id. Am. 2, 2, 64; cf. also Cic. Att. 7, 1, 4; so with exspectare, id. Lael. 13; Caes. B. G. 1, 11 fin.; 4, 13, 2; Liv. 3, 11 fin.: Tac. Or. 19 fin.; Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 42; Luc. 5, 303 et saep.; with morari, Hirt. B. G. 8, 28; Liv. 4, 21 fin.; 22, 38 al.; cf. infra, β: sic deinceps omne opus contexitur, dum justa muri altitudo expleatur, Caes. B. G. 7, 23, 4; id. B. C. 1, 58, 4; cf.: multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem Inferretque deos Latio, Verg. A. 1, 5: ut spatium intercedere posset, dum milites convenirent, legatis respondit, etc., Caes. B. G. 1, 7 fin.: Caesar ex eo tempore, dum ad flumen Varum veniatur, se frumentum daturum pollicetur, from that time until, etc., id. B. C. 1, 87, 1: differant in tempus aliud, dum defervescat ira, Cic. Tusc. 4, 36, 78 (cf. ib.: dum se ipsi colligant): quippe qui moram temporis quaererent, dum Hannibal in Africam traiceret, Liv. 30, 16 fin. et saep.—
   (b)    Indic.: tu hic nos, dum eximus, interea opperibere, Ter. Heaut. 4, 7, 5; so with opperiri, Cic. Att. 10, 3; with manere aliquem, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 28; with exspectare, id. Eun. 1, 2, 126; with morari, Liv. 27, 42; cf.: causas innecte morandi, Dum pelago desaevit hiems, Verg. A. 4, 52: retine, dum ego huc servos evoco, Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 89; cf.: Tityre, dum redeo, pasce capellas, Verg. E. 9, 23: struppis, quibus lectica deligata erat, usque adeo verberari jussit, dum animam efflavit, Gracch. ap. Gell. 10, 3, 5; cf. in the perf., Prop. 1, 3, 45; in the fut., id. 1, 14, 14. See Hand, Turs. II. pp. 303-330.

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

dum,⁵ adv. et conj.
    I adv. enclitique :
1 joint à non, nullus, haud, vix, etc., il signifie « encore » : nondum, pas encore ; nullusdum, nulladum, etc., encore pas un, pas une, etc. ; vixdum, à peine encore ; nihildum, encore rien ; necdum, nequedum, et pas encore ; nequedum satis, et pas encore assez
2 [après l’impératif] donc, voyons, seulement, etc. : circumspice dum te Pl. Trin. 147, regarde seulement autour de toi ; memoradum Pl. Pœn. 1063, rappelle-moi donc ; tangedum Pl. Rud. 784, allons, touche-les, pour voir
3 [après interj.] : ehodum Ter. Eun. 360, hé, voyons ! || [après certains adv.] : quidum ? comment donc ? primumdum Pl. Mil. 297, eh bien d’abord.
    II conj.,
1 avec ind. : a) [ind. présent] dans le même temps que, pendant que, [qqf. en corrélation avec interea, interim ] : dum hæc in colloquio geruntur, Cæsari nuntiatum est... Cæs. G. 1, 46, 1, pendant que ces choses se traitaient dans l’entrevue, on annonça à César... ; hæc dum aguntur, interea Cleomenes jam... pervenerat Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 91, pendant que ces faits se passaient, Cléomène était déjà parvenu... || [avec imparf.] : dum is in aliis rebus erat occupatus... erant interea qui... Cic. Amer. 91, pendant qu’il se trouvait occupé à d’autres soins, dans le même moment il y avait des gens qui..., cf. Liv. 5, 47, 1 ; b) jusqu’au moment où, jusqu’à ce que : ego in Arcano opperior, dum ista cognosco Cic. Att. 10, 3, moi, j’attends dans ma propriété d’Arcanum, jusqu’à ce que je reçoive ces nouvelles ; exspectabo, dum venit Ter. Eun. 206, j’attendrai jusqu’à ce qu’il vienne (Andr. 714 ; Ad. 196 ; 785 ; etc.) ; mansit... usque ad eum finem, dum judices rejecti sunt Cic. Verr. 1, 1, 16, il resta... jusqu’au moment où les juges furent récusés ; c) pendant tout le temps que, tant que [qqf. en corrélation avec tamdiu ] : hæc civitas, dum erit, lætabitur Cic. Læl. 14, notre cité, tant qu’elle existera, s’en réjouira ; usus est... tamdiu, dum... habuit Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 6, il se servit... pendant aussi longtemps qu’il tint..., cf. Tusc. 5, 96 ; Cat. 3, 16 ; Att. 9, 6, 5, etc. ; dum me rei publicæ procuratio... tenebat..., habebam Cic. Ac. 1, 11, tant que l’administration des affaires publiques me tenait..., je gardais... ; d) tandis que [explicatif] : dum voluerunt... sustulerunt Cic. Fin. 2, 43, en voulant..., ils ont supprimé... ; dum voluit... inventus est... Cic. Br. 282, en voulant... il s’est trouvé..., cf. Br. 262 ; Mur. 54 ; Att. 1, 16, 2 ; etc. || fréqt d. Tite Live : Liv. præf., 2 ; 2, 31, 2 ; 2, 47, 4 ; 3, 67, 6 ; 5, 13, 13, etc.
2 avec subj. a) [st. ind.] : Cic. Planc. 95 ; Mur. 48 ; de Or. 1, 187 ; CM 41 ; etc. ; Cæs. G. 7, 77, 2 ; C. 2, 20, 3 ; etc.; b) [nuance consécutive et finale] : le temps suffisant, nécessaire pour que, un temps assez long pour que : sic deinceps omne opus conexitur, dum justa muri altitudo expleatur Cæs. G. 7, 23, 4, tout l’ouvrage se lie ainsi par couches successives jusqu’à ce que la hauteur normale du mur soit atteinte ; usque ad eum finem, dum possint... Cic. Nat. 2, 129, le temps nécessaire pour qu’ils soient en état de... ; mihi tantum temporis satis est... dum... caveam Cic. Att. 11, 19, 2, j’ai seulement le temps suffisant de prendre des mesures...; [en part. après exspectare ] exspecta, dum Atticum conveniam Cic. Att. 7, 1, 4, attends que je joigne Atticus ( Cæs. G. 1, 11, 6 ) ; c) [dans le potentiel ou irréel par attraction] : Cic. Nat. 2, 147 ; d) [analogue à cum participial] : Virg. G. 4, 457 ; Liv. 1, 40, 7 ; 10, 18, 1 ; etc.
3 [touj. avec le subj.] dum, dum modo, pourvu que : oderint, dum metuant Cic. Off. 1, 97, qu’ils haïssent, pourvu qu’ils craignent, cf. Fin. 5, 89 ; Rep. 1, 63 ; Amer. 119 ; etc.; Rep. 3, 4 ; Off. 3, 82 ; Cat. 1, 22 ; Br. 285 ; etc. || [sans verbe exprimé] : Fam. 7, 9, 2 ; Ac. 2, 104 ; etc. || [avec négation ne ] : Cato Agr. 5, 4 ; Cic. Att. 6, 1, 4 ; Fam. 10, 25, 2 ; de Or. 3, 185 ; etc.

Latin > German (Georges)

dum (wie alle Zeitadv. auf um [[[wie]] cum, tum] das Neutrum eines verloren gegangenen Pronomens), I) Adv., eig. = für jetzt, enklitisch mit andern Wörtern verbunden als: a) mit den Wörtern non, nullus, haud, vix etc., deutsch: noch, nondum, noch nicht, Cic.: so auch necdum, Liv., od. nequedum, Cic.: neque dum satis, noch nicht genug, Cic. fr.: nullusdum, nulladum etc., noch keiner usw., Liv.: vixdum, kaum noch, Cic.: nihildum, noch nichts, Cic. u. Liv.: aber nedum (sc. dicam, eig. um noch nicht zu sagen), geschweige denn, Cic. – b) mit dem Imperat., nun, doch noch, age dum, Cic.: agite dum, Liv.: ades dum, bleib für jetzt (doch noch) da, Ter.: itera dum, Cic.: dic dum, Ter.: facito dum, Ter.: so auch ehodum, höre doch, Ter. – c) mit qui, wie, qui dum? wieso? Ter. – d) mit primum, nun, primum dum, Plaut. – II) Coni.: 1) in-, während der Zeit daß, während, indes, indem, zur Angabe der Gleichzeitigkeit zweier Handlungen oder des Eintretens einer Handlung während der Dauer einer andern, gew. mit dem Indikativ; in der oratio obliqua u. in Absichtssätzen mit dem Konjunktiv, Cic. u.a. – 2) so lange als, zur Angabe, daß die Dauer der einen Handlung an die Dauer der andern geknüpft sei, mit dem Indikativ; in Absichtssätzen mit dem Konjunktiv, Cic. u.a.: tam diu, dum, Cic.: dum... tantisper, Ter. – 3) so lange bis, bis daß, bis, zur Angabe, daß die Handlung des Hauptsatzes dauere bis zum Eintreten der Handlung im Nebensatze, mit dem Indikativ; aber bei Angabe, daß das Ziel ein erstrebtes, gewolltes, bloß als möglich gedachtes, übh. als unbestimmte Zukunft erscheint, mit dem Konjunktiv, Cic. u.a.; dah. dum... dum, so lange... so lange (= wie lange ...so lange, s. Quint. 9, 3, 16), Acc. tr. 395 sq. Plaut. truc. 231. Catull. 62, 45 u. 56; vgl. Schömann Cic. de nat. deor. 2, 89. – 4) insoweit, insofern, wenn oder wofern nur, zur Beschränkung in Bedingungssätzen, mit dem Konjunktiv, Ter., Sall., Cic. u.a.: verstärkt dummodo, Cic. u.a.: auch getrennt dum potiar modo Ter. – ebenso auch dumne, dum... ne, wenn nur nicht, Komik. u. Cic.; verstärkt dummodo ne, Cic.

Latin > English

dum CONJ :: while, as long as, until; provided that