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acerbus

τύμβος, ὦ νυμφεῖον, ὦ κατασκαφής οἴκησις αἰείφρουρος, οἷ πορεύομαι πρὸς τοὺς ἐμαυτῆς -> Tomb, bridal chamber, eternal prison in the caverned rock, whither I go to find mine own.
Sophocles, Antigone, 883

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

ăcerbus: a, um, adj. fr. 2. acer, like superbus fr. super, yet the short ă should be noticed,
I harsh to the taste, of every object which has an astringent effect upon the tongue (opp. suavis, Lucr. 4, 661 sq.).
I Prop.: Neptuni corpus acerbum, bitter, briny, Lucr. 2, 472; and esp. of unripe fruit, sharp, sour, harsh, and the like: uva primo est peracerba gustatu, deinde maturata dulcescit, Cic. de Sen. 15: saporum genera tredecim reperiuntur: acer, acutus, acerbus, acidus, salsus, etc., Plin. 15, 27, 32; and since the harshness of fruit is always a sign of immaturity, so Varro, Cicero, Pliny, et al. use acerbus as a syn. for crudus, immaturus, unripe, crude, lit. and trop.: nondum matura uva est, nolo acerbam sumere, Phaed. 4, 2, 4; so Ov. Am. 2, 14, 24; and trop.: impolitae res et acerbae si erunt relictae, Cic. Prov. Cons. 14; cf. Gell. 13, 2.—Hence: virgo acerba, not yet marriageable, Varr. ap. Non. 247, 15; and esp. poet. (opp. to virgo matura, v. maturus): funus acerbum, as a translation of the Gr. θάϝατος ἄωρος (Eur. Orest. 1030), Auct. Or. pro Dom. 16: ante diem edere partus acerbos, premature, Ov. F. 4, 647. —
   B Transf.
   (a)    to sounds, harsh, hoarse, rough, shrill: serrae stridentis acerbum horrorem, Lucr, 2, 410: vox acerbissima, Auct. Her. 4, 47;
   (b)    to feeling, sharp, keen: frigus, bitter, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 53.
II Fig.
   A Of men: Rough, coarse, repulsive, morose, violent, hard, rigorous, severe: melius de quibusdam acerbos inimicos mereri quam eos amicos, qui dulces videantur, Cic. Lael. 24: posse enim asotos ex Aristippi, acerbos e Zenonis schola exire, for there may go forth sensualists from the school of Aristippus, crabbed fellows from that of Zeno, id. N. D. 3, 31 (cf. acriculus): acerbissimi feneratores, id. Att. 6, 1; so of adversaries or enemies, violent, furious, bitter, Cic. Fam. 1, 4: acerbissimus hostis, id. Cat. 4, 6 fin.; so id. Fam. 3, 8: acerbus odisti, Hor. S. 1, 3, 85 K. & H.: quid messes uris acerba tuas? Tib. 1, 2, 98 al. —
   B Of things, harsh, heavy, disagreeable, grievous, troublesome, bitter, sad (very often, esp. in Cic.): ut acerbum est, pro benefactis cum mali messem metas! Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 52; cf. Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 1; Att. ap. Non. 72, 29: in rebus acerbis, Lucr. 3, 54: acerbissimum supplicium, Cic. Cat. 4, 6: acerbissima vexatio, id. ib. 4, 1: acerba memoria temporis, id. Planc. 41: acerbissimā morte affectus, Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 12, 2 al.—Hence acerbum funus (diff. from above), a bitter, painful death, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 35: acerbum funus filiae, id. As. 3, 3, 5, and so Nep. Cim. 4: vita ejus fuit secura et mors acerba, afflicting, painful, unwelcome.—In the neutr. subst.: ăcer-bum, i, calamity, misfortune, Ov. Tr. 5, 2, 21; Verg. A. 12, 500—acerba, n. plur. adv. acc. to the Gr. idiom, Lucr. 5, 34 (cf. acuta et al.), several times imitated by Verg. A. 12, 398; 9, 794; id. G. 3, 149.—Adv.: ăcerbe, harshly, sharply, severely, etc., in the trop. signif. of the adj., Cic. Fam. 1, 5; id. N. D. 2, 33; id. Planc. 1: idem acerbe severus in filium, id. Off. 3, 31, 112; Liv. 3, 50. 12; 7, 3, 9; Tac. A. 2, 87 al.—Comp., Cic. Lael. 16; Suet. Tib. 25.—Sup., Cic. Att. 11, 1; Caes. B. C. 1, 2; also Cic. Planc. 35, 86, where, of an exclamation of severe grief, acerbissime for acerrime is defended against Lambinus and Ernesti by Wunder, Planc. l. c. p. 217; so B. & K.

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

ăcerbus,⁸ a, um (acer 2),
1 âpre, âcre : Pl. Truc. 179 ; Lucr. 4, 661 ; Plin. 15, 32 ; acerba uva Phædr. 4, 3, 4, raisin âpre (vert), cf. Cato Agr. 65, 1 ; Varro R. 1, 44, 4 ; acerbus odor Val. Flacc. 4, 493, odeur âcre ; vox acerba Quint. 11, 3, 169, voix aigre || [pl. n.] acerba sonans Virg. G. 3, 149, avec un bruit strident
2 qui n’est pas à maturité [fig.] : res acerbæ Cic. Prov. 34, affaires inachevées ; virgo acerba Varro Men. 11, jeune fille qui n’est pas nubile ; acerbum funus Pl. As. 595 ; Virg. En. 6, 429, mort prématurée
3 âpre, dur, pénible, amer, cruel : recordatio acerba Cic. Br. 266, souvenir amer ; fortuna Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 119, cruelle destinée ; acerbum est [avec inf.], il est pénible de : Cic. Quinct. 95 || pl. acerba, choses pénibles : Cic. Sest. 58 ; Virg. En. 12, 500 ; fremens acerba Virg. En. 12, 398, avec des frémissements violents [de colère]
4 aigre, dur, cruel, impitoyable, [en parlant du caractère, des actions, etc.]: Cic. Læl. 90 ; Cat. 1, 3 ; Rep. 2, 44, etc.; [avec in acc., à l’égard de] Phil. 8, 18 ; acerbæ linguæ fuit Liv. 39, 40, 10, il eut une langue acerbe, mordante || -bior Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 134 ; -bissimus Cic. Clu. 10.

Latin > German (Georges)

acerbus, a, um, Adj. m. Compar. u. Superl. (v. 2. acer), scharf, schneidend für die Sinne, I) eig.: 1) den Mund zusammenziehend, herb von Geschmack (Ggstz. dulcis, mitis, suavis), Neptuni corpus (Meerwasser), Lucr.: sapor, Plin.: bes. von unreifem Obst, scharf, herb, u. dah. unreif, unzeitig, roh übh., pirum, Varr.: oliva, Plin.: uva, Phaedr.: u. übtr., unreif, unzeitig, frühzeitig, virgo, Varr. fr. u. Ov.: res, Cic.: funus, Verg. u. Tac.: partus, Ov. – 2) für das Gehör, schneidend, grell, serrae stridentis horror, Lucr.: stridor, Plin.: acerba auditu vox propter nimiam exilitatem, Val. Max.: vox acerbissima, Cornif. rhet. u. Sen. – Acc. Plur. neutr. poet. für das Adv., acerba sonans, rauh tönend, Verg. georg. 3, 149. – 3) empfindlich für das Gefühl, schneidend, rauh, frigus, Hor.: ictus phalangii, Plin. – 4) für das Gesicht, vultus acerbi, sauere, finstere, Ov. – Acc. Plur. neutr. poet. für das Adv., acerba tuens, mit giftigem Blick, Verg. Aen. 9, 794. – II) übtr. auf das innere Gefühl, a) v. Pers., rauh, streng, abstoßend, grämlich, kleinlich (Ggstz. moderatus, remissus), inimicus, hostis, Cic.: creditor, Sen.: recitator, grausamer, Hor.: Libitina, grimmige, Hor.: alci acerbus, Cic.: acerbus in alqm, Ov.: acerbus in exigendo, Cic.: modo acerbior parciorque, modo remissior ac neglegentior, Suet.: subst., acerbus, bitterer Tadler, Bekrittler, Hor.: acerbos e Zenonis schola exire, Sauertöpfe, Cic. – b) v. Lebl., u. zwar: α) von dem, was mit Strenge geübt, eingefordert usw. wird, bitter, empfindlich, streng, peinlich, kleinlich, delectus, Liv.: inquisitio, Liv.: illius severitas, Cic.: imperium acerbius, Nep.: acerbissima diligentia, Cic.: illa acerbissima exactio, Cic.: acerbissima tributa, Cic.: acerbissimae impiorum poenae, Cic. – β) v.d. Rede, bitter, hart, kränkend, gehässig, linguae acerbae et immodice liberae fuit, Liv.: minaces et acerbae litterae, Cic.: litterae acerbissimae, bitterböser Br., Cic.: acerbum et breve scriptum, Suet.: ac. rumor, Tibull.: facetiae, Tac.: acerbissimum acclamationum genus, Suet. – γ) v. Zuständen, herb, bitter, empfindlich, kränkend, schmerzlich, peinlich, betrübend, incendium, Cic.: recordatio, Cic.: funus, Plaut. u. Cic.: funera, Tac.: scelus, Cic.: mors, Cic.: alcis interitus, Cic.: exitus tam tristis atque acerbus, Liv. fr.: odium acerbum, acerbissimum, Cic.: consilium neutri parti acerbum, Liv.: quam triste hoc ipsi, quam acerbum mihi, Plin. ep.: etsi erit acerbum auditu, Cic.: acerbum est ab aliquo circumveniri, acerbius a propinquo, Plaut. – acerbum est, acerbius est m. folg. Infin., Cic.: non est acerbum m. folg. Infin., Sen. – neutr. subst., aliquid cotidie acerbi atque incommodi nuntiatur, Cornif. rhet.: acerba ex amore homini oblata, Ter.: multa acerba, multa turpia habuit ille annus, Cic.: Ggstz., hoc bonum inter meras voluptates, hoc est inter tristia et acerba, Sen. – Acc. Plur. neutr. poet. für das Adv., acerba fremens, knirschend vor Schmerz, Verg. Aen. 12, 398.

Latin > English

acerbus acerba -um, acerbior -or -us, acerbissimus -a -um ADJ :: harsh, strident, bitter, sour; unripe, green, unfinished; grievous; gloomy