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utrum

Γηράσκω δ᾽ αἰεὶ πολλὰ διδασκόμενος -> I grow old always learning many things
Solon the Athenian

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

ū̆trum: adv. uter.
I Introducing an alternative question (direct or indirect), with an beginning the second clause (v. an); in Engl. represented in direct questions simply by the tone of voice, and in indirect questions by whether.
   A In a direct interrogation.
   1    With ne,
   (a)    Attached to the emphatic word of the first clause: utrum tu masne an femina es? Plaut. Rud. 1, 2, 16: Ba. Simulato me amare. Pi. Utrum ego istoc jocon' assimulem, an serio, id. Bacch. 1, 1, 42: utrum studione id sibi habet an laudi putat Fore? Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 28: utrum igitur tandem perspicuisne dubia aperiuntur an dubiis perspicua tolluntur? Cic. Fin. 4, 24, 67: utrum censes illum tuamne de se orationem libentius auditurum fuisse an meam? id. ib. 2, 19, 60.—
   (b)    With ne attached to utrum, utrumne ... an (poet. and post-Aug.): utrumne jussi persequemur otium ... An hunc laborem, etc. Hor. Epod. 1, 7: utrumne salvum eum nolet orator, an? etc., Quint. 12, 1, 40: utrumne igitur ego sum, Domiti, exemplo gravis an tu, qui, etc., Plin. 17, 1, 1, § 4.—
   (g)    With ne repeated in place of an (very rare): sed utrum terraene motus, sonitusne inferum Pervasit auris? Att. ap. Prisc. 6, p. 680 P. (Trag. Rel. v. 479 Rib.).—
   2    Without ne, utrum ... an (class.): utrum pro ancillā me habes, an pro filiā? Plaut. Pers. 3, 1, 13: utrum hac me feriam, an ab laevā, latus? id. Cist. 3, 13: sed utrum nunc tu coelibem ted esse mavis liberum, an maritum servom, etc., id. Cas. 2, 4, 11: utrum pro dimidiā parte, an pro totā societate? Utrum pro me an pro me et pro te? Cic. Rosc. Com. 11, 32: utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est? id. Ac. 2, 29, 95; id. Tusc. 1, 25, 61.—
   B In an indirect interrogation.
   1    With ne attached,
   (a)    To the emphatic word of the first clause: sed utrum strictimne attonsurum dicam esse an per pectinem Nescio, Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 18: videndum'st primum utrum eae velintne an non velint, id. Most. 3, 1, 151: cum animo depugnat suo, Utrum itane esse ma. velit ... an ita potius, id. Trin. 2, 2, 26; id. Ps. 2, 4, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 4, 1: de istac rogas Virgine? Py. Ita, utrum praedicemne an taceam? Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 53: ea res nunc in discrimine versatur, utrum possitne se parsimonia defendere, an, etc., Cic. Quint. 30, 92: videamus, utrum ea fortuitane sint an eo statu, quo, etc., id. N. D. 2, 34, 87; id. Phil. 2, 12, 30; cf.: est ... illa distinctio, utrum ... an ... et utrum illudne ... an, etc., id. Tusc. 4, 27, 59.—
   (b)    With ne attached to utrum; utrumne ... an (poet. and post-Aug.): nec quidquam differre utrumne in pulvere ... ludas opus, an meretricis amore Sollicitus plores, Hor. S. 2, 3, 251: utrumne Divitiis homines an sint virtute beati, id. ib. 2, 6, 73: in eo plures dissenserunt, utrumne hae partes essent rhetorices, an ejusdem opera, an elementa, Quint. 3, 3, 13: Dareus dubitaverat utrumne circa Mesopotamiam subsisteret, an interiora regna sui peteret, Curt. 4, 9, 1; Col. 11, 1, 50; Suet. Caes. 80; Tac. Or. 37.—
   (g)    With ne attached to an; utrum ... anne: me jussit percontarier utrum aurum reddat anne eat secum simul, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 1, 4: est quaerendumque utrum una species sit earum anne plures, Cic. Or. 61, 206: id autem utrum illi sentiant anne simulent, tu intelleges, id. Att. 12, 51, 2; cf. uter, I. B. 4, fin.—
   2    Without ne: quid tu, malum, curas, Utrum crudum an coctum edim, Plaut. Aul. 3, 2, 16: facite indicium, utrum hac an illac iter institerit, id. Cist. 4, 2, 11: utrum stultitiā facere ego hunc an malitiā Dicam, incertus sum, Ter. Phorm. 4, 3, 54: id utrum Romano more locutus sit, an, quomodo Stoici dicunt, postea videro, Cic. Fam. 7, 16, 3: permultum interest, utrum perturbatione aliquā animi, an consulto fiat injuria, id. Off. 1, 8, 27: quid interest utrum hoc feceris, an, etc., id. Verr. 2, 3, 75, § 174; id. Rosc. Com. 3, 9: multum interest, utrum laus imminuatur, an salus deseratur, id. Fam. 1, 7, 8: quomodo transierit, utrum rate an piscatorio navigio, nemo sciebat, Cael. ap. Quint. 6, 3, 41; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 8; Cat. 17, 21.—
   3    With necne (rarely ne) in place of the second clause with an; utrum ... necne, whether ... or not: jam dudum ego erro, qui quaeram, utrum emeris necne, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 16, § 35: di utrum sint necne sint quaeritur, id. N. D. 3, 7, 17: utrum proelium committi ex usu esset necne, Caes. B. G. 1, 50: deliberent, utrum traiciant legiones necne ... et Brutum arcessant necne, et mihi stipendium dent an decernant, Brut. ap. Cic. Fam. 11, 26; Liv. 39, 48, 2.—So, utrum ... ne: cum interrogaretur, utrum pluris patrem matremne faceret? matrem inquit, Nep. Iphic. 3, 4.—
II Introducing a disjunctive question with more than two members, with an beginning each clause after the first.
   A A direct question: utrum hoc tu parum commeministi, an ego non satis intellexi, an mutasti sententiam? Cic. Att. 9, 2: utrum hoc signum cupiditatis tuae an tropaeum necessitudinis an amoris indicium esse voluisti? id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, § 115; 2, 3, 36, § 83: utrum hostem an vos an fortunam utriusque populi ignoratis? Liv. 21, 10, 6; 6, 7, 3: utrum major ... an majores ... an aetas ... an cum Karthaginiensi, etc., id. 28, 43, 12.—
   B An indirect question: in quo (convivio) nemo potest dicere utrum ille plus biberit an vomuerit an effuderit, Cic. Pis. 10, 22: utrum admonitus an temptatus an sine duce ullo ... nescio, id. Verr. 2, 1, 41, § 105.—
III Introducing a single question without an expressed alternative (cf. the similar use of an).
   a In a direct interrogation: utrum enim in clarissimis est civibus is, quem judicatum hic duxit Hermippus? Cic. Fl. 19, 45: utrum igitur hactenus satis est? id. Top. 4, 25: utrum majores vestri omnium magnarum rerum et principia exorti ab diis sunt et finem eum statuerunt? Liv. 45, 39, 10.—
   b In an indirect interrogation: neque utrum ex hoc saltu damni salvum scio eliciam foras, Plaut. Men. 5, 6, 30: an hoc dicere audebis, utrum de te aratores, utrum denique Siculi universi bene existiment, ad rem id non pertinere? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 69, § 167: Nep. Eum. 6, 1.—With the interrog. particle nam: cum percontatus esset, utrumnam Patris universa classis in portu stare posset, Liv. 37, 17, 10 dub. Weissenb. ad loc. (Hertz and Madv. possetne).

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

ŭtrum,⁷
1 n. de uter ; [interrog.] littt, laquelle des deux choses ? utrum hoc est confirmare... an debilitare ? Cic. Phil. 5, 4, quel est le résultat ? affermir ou affaiblir ? cogitare utrum esset utilius, suisne servire an Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 73, se demander quelle était la situation la plus avantageuse pour eux, être asservis à leurs compatriotes ou...
2 adv. d’interr. double dir. et indir ; a) [dir.] utrum... an ? est-ce que ou bien ? [ind.] si... ou si, v. an ; b) utrum suivi de ne... an, même sens, v. an ; c) utrum... necne, est-ce que... ou non ? si ou non, v. ne ; d) utrumne... an = utrum... an Cic. Inv. 1, 51 ; Hor. Epo. 1, 7 ; S. 2, 3, 251 ; 2, 6, 73 ; Sen. Marc. 12, 3 ; Vita b. 23, 4 ; Helv. 9, 1 ; Quint. 12, 1, 40, etc.
3 qqf. interr. simple ; a) [dir.] est-ce que ? Cic. Fl. 45 ; Top. 25 ; Liv. 45, 39, 10 ; b) [ind.] si : Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 167 ; Nep. Eum. 6, 1.

Latin > German (Georges)

utrum, Adv. (uter), auch verstärkt durch ne u. nam in utrumne, utrumnam, leitet das erste Glied eines disjunktiven Frage- od. Zweifelsatzes ein, mit korresp. an, annon u.a.u. ohne Schlußsatz, deutsch ob, wohl, od. durch den bloßen Frageton ausgedrückt, I) in direkter Frage: a) m. korresp. Schlußsatz: α) m. an: utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est? Cic.: utrum enim defenditis an impugnatis plebem? Liv. – mit mehr als einem Schlußsatz, utrum... abstulit? an... dedit? an ademit? an... commutavit? Cic. – utrum verstärkt durch ne, u. zwar ne an das nächste, durch die Frage betonte Wort angehängt (s. Brix Plaut. capt. 265. Spengel Ter. adelph. 382), utrum ego istuc iocon(e) assimulem an serio? Plaut.: utrum praedicemne an taceam? Ter. (vgl. no. II, a, α). – od. mit utrum in utrumne verb., utrumne os an culum olfacerem Aemilio, Catull.: de Oceano dubitant, utrumne terras velut vinculum circumfluat an in suum colligatur orbem, Sen. rhet.: utrumne ego igitur sum Domitii exemplo gravis, an ut etc.? Plin.: utrumne salvum eum nolet orator, an etc.? Quint. – β) m. annon: utrum cetera nomina in codicem accepti et expensi digesta habes, annon? Cic. – γ) m. necne: curiosissime attenti, utrum necne philosophus morte turbaretur, Augustin. de civ. dei 9, 4, 2. p. 372, 16 D.2: de ipsius boni veritate, quod sectandum videtur, utrum sit necne dubitandum, ibid. 19, 1, 3. p. 350, 14 D.2: vellem tamen sciscitari utrum necne cum corporibus resurgatur, Min. Fel. 11, 7 (nach Dombarts Verbesserung). – b) in einfacher Frage ohne den Schlußsatz mit an (s. Nipperd. Nep. Eum. 6, 1): utrum hoc bellum non est? Cic.: utrum enim est in clarissimis civibus is, quem iudicatum hic duxit Hermippus? Cic.: utrum maiores vestri... exorti ab diis sunt et finem eum statuerunt? Liv. – II) in indirekter Frage: a) mit korresp. an, anne, annon, necne: α) mit an: multum interest, utrum laus imminuatur an salus deseratur, Cic.: utrum rati an piscatorio navigio (transierit), nemo sciebat, Cael. b. Quint.: desinite dubitare, utrum sit utilius propter multos improbos uni parcere, an etc., Cic. – utrum verstärkt durch ne, u. zwar ne an das nächste, durch die Frage betonte Wort angehängt (vgl. oben no. I, a, α), zB. ea res nunc in discrimine versatur, utrum possitne se defendere, an etc., Cic.: quaesiturum ab eo simul, utrum iisne urbibus decedere se aequum censeat, quas ab se ipso captas iure belli habeat, an iis etiam, quas a maioribus suis accepisset, Liv. – od. m. utrum in utrumne verb., non multum interest, utrumne de furto aut formula et interdicto dicendum habeas, an de ambitu comitiorum, Tac. dial.: in eo plures dissenserunt, utrumne hae partes essent rhetorices, an etc., Quint. – β) m. anne: utrum illi sentiant, anne simulent, tu intelleges, Cic.: quaerendum utrum una... anne plures, Cic.: percunctarier, utrum aurum reddat, anne eat secum simul, Plaut. – γ) m. annon: utrum sit annon voltis, Plaut.: spectasse, utrum saluber locus esset annon? Varro. – δ) m. necne: iam dudum ego erro, qui quaeram, utrum emeris necne, Cic.: utrum proelium committi ex usu esset necne, Caes. – b) ohne den Schlußsatz mit an: an hoc dicere audebis, utrum de te aratores, utrum denique Siculi universi bene existiment, ad rem id non pertinere? Cic. – utrum verstärkt durch nam, zB. cum percontatus esset, utrumnam Pataris universa classis in portu stare posset, Liv. 37, 17, 10 (Hertz possetne Patris): quaerentes, utrumnam stellas animantes an inanimantes esse dicamus, Firm. math. 1, 2, 12: et consuluerunt posthaec dominum, utrumnam venturus esset illuc, Vulg. 1. regg. 10, 22: recenseat in bibliotheca regis, utrumnam a Cyro rege iussum fuerit, ut aedificaretur domus dei in Ierusalem? Vulg. 1. Esdr. 5, 17.

Latin > English

utrum ADV :: whether; (introducing an indirect question); [utrum...an => whether...or]