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iam

Ἐς δὲ τὰ ἔσχατα νουσήματα αἱ ἔσχαται θεραπεῖαι ἐς ἀκριβείην, κράτισται -> For extreme diseases, extreme methods of cure, as to restriction, are most suitable.
Corpus Hippocraticum, Aphorisms 1.6.2

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

jam: adv. for diam, collat. form of diem, cf. pri-dem, du-dum, Corss. Ausspr. I. p. 213; II. p. 850; but acc. to Curt. Gr. Etym. 398, 620; locat. form from pronom. stem ia.
I Of time, denoting a point or moment of time as coinciding with that of the action, etc., described.
   A Of present time.
   1    As opp. to past or future, at this time, now, just now, at present, i. e. while I speak or write this.
   a Jam alone: jamne autem, ut soles, deludis? Plaut. Aul. 5, 11: jam satis credis sobrium esse me, Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 36: saltus reficit jam roscida luna, Verg. G. 3, 337: jam tenebris et sole cadente, id. ib. 3, 401: jamque dies, ni fallor, adest, id. A. 5, 49: jam advesperascit, Ter. And. 3, 4, 2: reddere qui voces jam scit puer, Hor. A. P. 158: stabat modo consularis, modo septemvir epulonum; jam neutrum, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 12: jam melior, jam, diva, precor, Verg. A. 12, 179: Hem, scio jam quod vis dicere, Plaut. Mil. 1, 1, 36: in ea (consuetudine) quaedam sunt jura ipsa jam certa propter vetustatem, Cic. Inv. 2, 22, 67: jam tempus agi, Verg. A. 5, 638: surgere jam tempus, Cat. 62, 3.—
   b Strengthened.
   (a)    By repetition: jam jam, jam jamque (nearly = nunc), at this very time, precisely now: jam jam intellego, Crasse, quod dicas, Cic. de Or. 3, 24, 90: jam jam minime miror te otium perturbare, id. Phil. 2, 34, 87: jam jam dolet quod egi, jam jamque paenitet, Cat. 63, 73: jam jam linquo acies, Verg. A. 12, 875: jam jamque video bellum, Cic. Att. 16, 9 fin.: at illum ruere nuntiant et jam jamque adesse, id. ib. 7, 20, 1; cf.: jam mihi, jam possim contentus vivere parvo, Tib. 1, 1, 25 (7).—
   (b)    By nunc: jam nunc, just now, at this very time, as things now are: jam nunc irata non es, Plaut. Am. 3, 2, 65: dux, jam nunc locatus in urbe, Liv. 22, 38, 9; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 127: quae cum cogito, jam nunc timeo quidnam, etc., Cic. Div. in Caecil. 13, 42: deliberationis ejus tempus ita jam nunc statui posse, etc., Liv. 31, 32, 3: ipsa Venus laetos jam nunc migravit in agros, Tib. 2, 3, 3: nec jam nunc regina loquor, Val. Fl. 8, 47; so, nunc jam (nunciam): secede huc nunciam, Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 23: audi nunciam, Ter. And. 2, 1, 29: i nunciam, id. Ad. 2, 1, 21: nunc jam sum expeditus, Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 12, 5: nunc jam nobis vobisque consulatus patet, Liv. 7, 32, 14.—
   (g)    By tum: jam tum opifices funguntur munere, Plin. 11, 21, 24, § 74; Verg. G. 2, 405; id. A. 1, 18.—
   (d)    By pridem, v. iampridem.—
   2    In contrast with the time at which something was expected.
   a Of that which occurs sooner, already, so soon: quies (animos) aut jam exhaustos aut mox exhauriendos, renovavit, Liv. 21, 21, 7: gravitate valetudinis, qua tamen jam paululum videor levari, Cic. Fam. 6, 2, 1; 3, 8, 16: jamne ibis, are you going so soon, Plaut. Men. 2, 3, 86; id. Rud. 2, 7, 26.—
   b Of that which occurs later, at last, now, only now: ohe jam desine deos uxor gratulando obtundere, Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 8: postulo, Dave, ut redeat jam in viam, id. And. 1, 2, 19: jamque sero diei subducit ex acie legionem faciendis castris, Tac. A. 2, 21: jam sanguinis alti vis sibi fecit iter, Luc. 2, 214.—Tandem or aliquando is often added: jam tandem ades ilico, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 39: putamus enim utile esse te aliquando jam rem transigere, Cic. Att. 1, 4, 1: jam tandem Italiae fugientis prendimus oras, Verg. A. 6, 61; Liv. 22, 12, 10.—
   3    As continued from the past, already, by this time, ere now, till now, hitherto: et apud Graecos quidem jam anni prope quadrigenti sunt, etc., Cic. Or. 51, 171: obsolevit jam ista oratio, id. de Imp. Pomp. 17, 52: nondum feminam aequavimus gloriā, et jam nos laudis satietas cepit? Curt. 9, 6, 23.—With numerals and words specifying time: jam biennium est, cum mecum coepit rem gerere, Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 35; so, plus jam anno, id. Curc. 1, 1, 14: sunt duo menses jam, Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 8: qui septingentos jam annos vivunt, etc., id. Fl. 26, 63: annum jam tertium et vicesimum regnat, id. de Imp. Pomp. 3, 7; id. Fin. 2, 29, 94.—
   4    With imperatives, to express haste or impatience, like Engl. now, now, straightway, at once: quid miserum, Aenea, laceras? Jam parce sepulto, Verg. A. 3, 41: sed jam age, carpe viam, id. ib. 6, 629: et jam tu ... illum adspice contra, id. ib. 11, 373.—So in impetuous or passionate questions (freq. in Plaut.): Jam tu autem nobis praeturam geris? Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 23; cf. id. Aul. 5, 11; id. Bacch. 2, 2, 25.—
   5    Jam ... jam, at one time ... at another, now ... now, at this time ... at that: jamque eadem digitis jam pectine pulsat eburno, Verg. A. 647: jamque hos cursu, jam praeterit illos, id. ib. 4, 157: qui jam contento, jam laxo fune laborat, Hor. S. 2, 7, 20: jam vino quaerens, jam somno fallere curas, id. ib. 2, 7, 114: jam secundae, jam adversae res, ita erudierant, etc., Liv. 30, 30; Tib. 1, 2, 49; Ov. M. 1, 111.—
   B Of past time.
   1    In the time just past, but now, a moment ago, a little while ago, just: videamus nunc quam sint praeclare illa his, quae jam posui, consequentia, Cic. Fin. 3, 7, 26: Arsinoë et jam dicta Memphis, Plin. 5, 9, 11, § 61: insulae praeter jam dictas, id. 3, 26, 30, § 151: hiems jam praecipitaverat, Caes. B. C. 3, 25, 1: domum quam tu jam exaedificatam habebas, Cic. Att. 1, 6, 1.—
   2    Like English now, by this time, already.
   a Alone: jam advesperascebat, Liv. 39, 50: Hannibalem movisse ex hibernis, et jam Alpes transire, id. 27, 39: et jam fama volans ... domos et moenia complet, Verg. A. 11, 139; 12, 582; Caes. B. G. 1, 11; 6, 6: jamque rubescebat Aurora, Verg. A. 3, 521; 10, 260: ut semel inclinavit pugna, jam intolerabilis Romana vis erat, Liv. 6, 32: cum decimum jam diem graviter ex intestinis laborarem, Cic. Fam. 7, 26, 1.—
   b Strengthened.
   (a)    Jam jamque, Verg. A. 8, 708.—
   (b)    By tum, as early as that: se jam tum gessisse pro cive, Cic. Arch. 5, 11; Liv. 29, 1; Verg. 7, 738; Tac. Agr. 45.—
   (g)    By tunc (post-Aug.; once in Cic.), Suet. Aug. 89; id. Ner. 7; Tac. H. 4, 50; Cic. Fam. 3, 12, 3 dub.—
   3    Of a time succeeding another time referred to, from that time, thenceforth, thereafter (esp. with a or ab, when it is often = Eng. even, very): qui aequom esse censent nos jam a pueris nasci senes, Ter. Heaut. 2, 1, 2: quae me maxime sicuti jam a prima adolescentia delectarunt, Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 67: benevolentia quae mihi jam a pueritia tua cognita est, id. ib. 4, 7, 1: dederas enim jam ab adolescentia documenta, id. Mil. 8, 22: jam ab illo tempore, cum, etc., from the very time when, etc., id. Fam. 2, 16, 9; cf.: urgerent philosophorum greges jam ab illo fonte et capite Socrate, id. de Or. 1, 10, 42. —So with ex: jam ex quo ipse accepisset regnum, ever since, Liv. 42, 11, 8.—
   C Of future time.
   1    In the time immediately approaching, forthwith, straightway, directly, presently: occlude sis fores ambobus pessulis: jam ego hic ero, Plaut. Aul. 1, 2, 25: ille jam hic aderit, id. Ep. 2, 2, 72: omitte; jam adero, Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 26; cf. id. ib. 4, 6, 1; id. And. 1, 2, 9; 4, 4, 38: bono animo es; jam argentum ad eam deferes, quod ei es pollicitus, id. Heaut. 4, 6, 18: facere id ut paratum jam sit, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 76: jam fuerit, neque post unquam revocare licebit, Lucr. 3, 927: jam faciam quod voltis, Hor. S. 1, 1, 16: jam enim aderunt consules ad suas Nonas, Cic. Att. 7, 20, 2.—
   2    In the time immediately succeeding another time referred to, forthwith, at once, straightway, then: nunc ubi me illic non videbit, jam huc recurret, Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 10: accede ad ignem ... jam calesces, id. Eun. 1, 2, 5: nisi puerum tollis, jam ego hunc in mediam viam provolvam, id. And. 4, 4, 38: de quibus jam dicendi locus erit, cum de senioribus pauca dixero, Cic. Brut. 25, 96: agedum, dictatorem creemus. Jam hic centicescet furor, Liv. 2, 29, 11: aperi, inquit, jam scies, Petr. 16, 2; cf. Verg. A. 1, 272.—
   3    Representing as present an impending event, now, already, presently (mostly poet.): jam te premet nox, Hor. C. 1, 4, 16: jam veniet mors, jam subrepet iners aetas, Tib. 1, 1, 70: jam mare turbari trabibus videbis, jam fervere litora flammis, Verg. A. 4, 566; 6, 676: alius Latio jam partus Achilles, id. ib. 6, 89: hic magnae jam locus urbis erit, Tib. 2, 5, 55.—
   D With negatives, denoting cessation of previous condition: jam non, no more, no longer: quem odisse jam non potestis, Cic. Clu. 10, 29; Ov. M. 4, 382: non jam, not any more, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 1, 3: nihil jam, Caes. B. G. 2, 21.—
   E With comparatives: ad mitiora jam ingenia, which had become milder, Liv. 27. 39: ad ferociores jam gentes, which then were less civilized, id. 21, 60: una jam potior sententia, Stat. Th. 2, 368.
II In other relations.
   A To denote that something will certainly, properly, or easily occur, under certain circumstances.
   1    In a conclusion, to emphasize its relation to the condition, then surely, then: si cogites, remittas jam me onerare injuriis, Ter. And. 5, 1, 6: si quis voluerit animi sui notionem evolvere, jam se ipse doceat, eum virum bonum esse, Cic. Off. 3, 19, 76: si hoc dixissem, jam mihi consuli jure optimo senatus vim intulisset, id. Cat. 1, 8, 21; id. Leg. 1, 12, 34; id. Brut. 17, 68: si jubeat eo dirigi, jam in portu fore omnem classem, Liv. 29, 27, 8.—
   2    In a consequence, to show that it is conceived as immediate, now, then, therefore: satis est tibi in te, satis in legibus; jam contemni non poteris, Cic. Fin. 2, 26, 84: jam hoc non potest in te non honorifice esse dictum, id. Fam. 5, 2, 2; id. Leg. 2, 24, 60; id. Clu. 16, 46: nec hanc solam Romani meretricem colunt ... Jam quanta ista immortalitas putanda est, Lact. 1, 20, 5: Quae cum ita sint, ego jam hinc praedico, Liv. 40, 36, 14: conspecta et ex muris ea multitudo erat; jamque etiam legionariae cohortes sequebantur, id. 10, 43, 1.—
   B In transitions.
   1    To a new subject, now, moreover, again, once more then: jam de artificiis et quaestibus ... haec fere accepimus, Cic. Off. 1, 42, 150; Verg. G. 2, 57: jam jura legitima ex legibus cognosci oportebit, Cic. Inv. 2, 22, 68: jam illud senatus consultum, quod eo die factum est, etc., id. Fam. 5, 2, 4: jam Saliare Numae carmen qui laudat, Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 86. —So with vero: jam vero motus animi, sollicitudines aegritudinesque oblivione leniuntur, Cic. Tusc. 5, 38, 110: jam vero virtuti Cn. Pompei quae potest par oratio inveniri? id. de Imp. Pomp. 11, 29; 14, 41; id. Off. 3, 13 init.—With at enim: at enim jam dicetis virtutem non posse constitui, si ea, etc., Cic. Fin. 4, 15, 40 init.—
   2    In enumerations: et aures ... itemque nares ... jam gustatus ... tactus autem, Cic. N. D. 2, 56, 141.—So sometimes repeatedly, at one time ... at another ... at another, jam ... jam ... jam: jam medici, jam apparatus cibi, jam in hoc solum importatum instrumentum balinei nullius non succurrit valetudini, Vell. 2, 114, 2; cf. Flor. 2, 17, 8, and I. A. 5. supra.—
   C For emphasis.
   1    After non modo ... sed ( = adeo), now, even, I may say: non cum senatu modo, sed jam cum diis bellum gerere, Liv. 21, 63, 6.—
   2    Pressing the strict sense of a word or clause, now, precisely, indeed: (Hieronymum) quem jam cur Peripateticum appellem, nescio, Cic. Fin. 5, 5, 14: hoc quidem haud molestum est jam, quod collus collari caret, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 107: loquor enim jam non de sapientium, sed de communibus amicitiis, Cic. Lael. 21, 77: te quoque jam, Thais, ita me di bene ament, amo, Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 43: imitatio morum alienorum ... jam inter leniores affectus numerari potest, Quint. 9, 2, 58: reliqua jam aequitatis sunt, id. 7, 1, 62: cetera jam fabulosa, Tac. G. 46: desine: jam venio moriturus, Verg. A. 10, 881.—So esp. with et: et jam (cf. etiam), and indeed, and in fact, et lenitas illa Graecorum et verborum comprehensio, et jam artifex, ut ita dicam, stilus, Cic. Brut. 25, 96: pulchriora etiam Polycleti et jam plane perfecta, id. ib. 18, 70: Pompeium et hortari et orare et jam liberius accusare non desistimus, id. Fam. 1, 1, 3; Quint. Decl. 5, 3; Luc. 8, 659; cf. jamque, Cic. Fam. 4, 6, 9; so, jam et: nec deerat Ptolemaeus, jam et sceleris instinctor, Tac. H. 1, 23; 1, 22; and, ac jam: ac jam, ut omnia contra opinionem acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse, Caes. B. G. 3, 9: jam ergo, in very fact: jam ergo aliquis condemnavit, Cic. Clu. 41, 113.—
   3    In climax, even, indeed, really: opus Paniceis, opus Placentinis quoque ... jam maritumi omnes milites opus sunt mihi, Plaut. Capt. 1, 2, 59: jam illa quae natura, non litteris, assecuti sunt, neque cum Graecia neque ulla cum gente sunt conferenda, Cic. Tusc. 1, 1, 2: jam in opere quis par Romano miles? Liv. 9, 19, 8; Quint. 12, 1, 45; Cic. Rep. 1, 5; Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 83.

Latin > German (Georges)

iam, Adv. (zum Pronom.-Stamme *i- von is), jetzt, bereits, schon, I) temporell, zur Bezeichnung der Zeit eines Besprochenen als bloßen Zeitmomentes: A) im Gegensatz zu der fernern Vergangenheit und Zukunft = im Augenblicke, d.i. a) in der unmittelbaren Gegenwart = jetzt eben, soeben, gerade, D. faciam. P. At iam hoc, jetzt, auf der Stelle, Ter.: reddere qui voces iam scit puer, der eben zu sprechen weiß, Hor.: non quia iam sint, sed quia saepe sint, Cic.: plenum vino, non plenum vini iam dicitur, Quint. – iam iamque, jeden Augenblick, alsbald, Cic. u.a. (s. Kraner Caes. b. c. 1, 14, 1. Meißner Cic. Tusc. 1, 14): iam nunc, eben jetzt, iam tum, eben damals, Cic.: iam dudum, alsbald, sofort, Verg., Ov. u.a.: cum iam, als eben (gerade), Cic.: iam... cum, eben (gerade), als usw., Cic. u.a. (s. Fritzsche Hor. sat. 1, 5, 20): iam ut, eben als, sobald als, Plaut. u. Ter. – b) in der eben vergangenen Zeit = soeben, eben erst, illa his, quae iam posui, consequentia, Cic. – c) in der nächst zukünftigen Zeit = augenblicklich, alsbald, sofort, sogleich, gleich, iam redeo, Plaut.: omitte, iam adero, Ter.: iam dabitur, Ter.: iam opus est (ich brauche es gleich). G. iam feres (du sollst es gleich haben), Plaut.: viginti iam usust filio argenti minis: face id ut paratum iam sit, Plaut.: quam haec pulchra sint, ipse iam dicet, Cic. – iamiam, im Augenblicke, Plaut. u.a.: iamiamque, in diesem od. im nächsten Augenblicke, Cic. u.a.: iam tum, gleich damals, Cic. – dah. α) zur Vergegenwärtigung des Zeitpunktes einer Handlung, die man als nächstens eintretend ankündigt = sogleich, bald, iam te premet nox, Hor.: iam subrepet iners aetas, Tibull.: iam scies, Petron. – β) in Befehlen und Aufmunterungen = gleich, jetzt, nun, quid miserum, Aenea, laceras? Iam parce sepulto, Verg.: sed iam age, carpe viam, Verg. – γ) in ungeduldigen Fragen = gleich, iamne imus? Plaut.: quid iam? was nur gleich? oft b. Plaut.
B) zur Andeutung, daß die Tätigkeit aus der Vergangenheit od. Zukunft in die Gegenwart hinüberreicht: a) aus der Vergangenheit = schon, nachgerade, bereits, bisher, satis diu iam hoc saxum volvo, Ter.: Nestor tertiam iam aetatem hominum vivebat, Cic.: septingentos iam annos amplius unis moribus vivunt, Cic. – u. so iam diu, iam dudum, iam pridem, schon längst, Cic. u.a. – b) aus der Zukunft = nun, von nun an, nunmehr, nun schon, nulla mihi res posthac potest iam intervenire tanta, Ter.: iam ex sermone hoc gubernabunt doctius porro rem, Plaut.: at non sunt iam immortali ulla pericula, Lucr.: iam concedo, non esse miseros, qui mortui sunt, Cic. – surgere iam (nun, nunmehr) tempus, Catull.: iam tempus agi res, Verg. – / So mit Negationen: non iam od. iam non = nun nicht mehr, Cic., oder = noch nicht, Cic.: iam nemo, niemand mehr, Cic.
C) zur Andeutung, daß die Sache unerwartet frühzeitig sich zeigt od. unerwartet lange her ist od. längst erwartet u. verspätet erscheint: a) unerwartet frühzeitig = schon, iamne abis? du gehst schon (so frühzeitig)? Plaut.: iam advesperascit, Ter.: iam scio, quid vis dicere, Ter.: omnes iam istius generis legationes erant constitutae, Cic.: labores aut iam exhaustos aut mox exhauriendos, Liv. – u. so non iam = nicht schon, Nep. – b) unerwartet lange her = schon, bereits, iam plus anno scio, Plaut.: iam biennium est, cum mecum rem coepit, Plaut. – c) längst erwartet und verspätet = erst, endlich, nun, iam sero diei, erst spät am Tage, Tac.: ohe, iam (nun, endlich) desine deos, uxor, gratulando obtundere, Ter.: putamus enim utile esse, te aliquando iam rem transigere, Cic.: iam tandem ades ilico, Plaut. – / Oft mit andern Zeitbestimmungen verb.: iam nunc, iam tum, iam ante, Cic.: iam olim, Ter. u. Verg. – iam a prima adulescentia, Cic.: iam inde ab adulescentia, Ter.: iam ab illo tempore, cum etc., Cic. – iam aliquando (s. vorher), Cic.: iam tandem (s. vorher), Plaut.
II) in andern Verhältnissen: A) zur Andeutung, daß unter gewissen Umständen etwas ungehindert, sogleich, bestimmt eintrete = dann bestimmt (gewiß), so bestimmt (gewiß), accede ad ignem hunc, iam calesces plus satis, Ter.: da mihi hoc, iam tibi maximam partem defensionis praecideris, Cic. – dah. a) oft im Nachsatz der Zeit-, Kausal- u. Bedingungssätze, um den Nachsatz bestimmt als Folge des Hauptsatzes anzukündigen = dann bestimmt (gewiß), so bestimmt (gewiß), ut semel inclinavit pugna, iam intolerabilis Romana vis erat, Liv.: id tu iam intelleges, cum in Galliam veneris, Cic.: si iubeat eo dirigi, iam in portu fore classem, Liv. – u. b) zum Anknüpfen und Anreihen dessen, was sich als Folge unmittelbar an das Vorhergehende und Vorhergenannte anschließt = nun, so nun, quae cum ita sint, iam praedico, eum etc., Liv.: idem et perornatus et brevis. Iam in altercando invenit parem neminem, Cic. – u. so iam porro, iam denique, Cic.: et iam, Cic.: iam primum, allererst nun, Liv. (s. Müller Liv. 1, 1, 1). – oft mit dem Nbbegr. der Steigerung = vollends, sogar, iam illa, quae naturā, non litteris assecuti sunt, neque cum Graecia neque ulla cum gente sunt conferenda, Cic.: so bes. iam vero, Cic.: et iam = »und sogar«, Cic.
B) bei Übergängen zu etwas Neuem und bei Aufzählungen = ferner, übrigens, außerdem, iam si obsignatas non feret etc., Plaut.: testudines autem etc.... Iam gallinae avesque reliquae etc., Cic.: oculi... et aures...: itemque nares...: iam gustatus...: tactus autem, Cic. – dah. iam... iam = bald... bald, Plaut., Hor., Vell. u.a.: u. iam... iam... iam, Vell. u. Flor.: iam... iamque, Auct. eleg. ad Messal. 45: iamque... iam, Verg.: iamque... iamque, Verg.; vgl. Dräger Histor. Synt.2 Bb. 2. S. 94.
C) determinativ, um Begriffe entweder auf sich zu beschränken = eben, gerade, od. zu steigern = gar, wirklich, vollends, a) bei Pronom.: iam hoc quoque iniquissime comparatum est, Cic.: iam illud non sunt admonendi, Cic. – b) bei Adii.: non scire quidem barbarum iam videtur, Cic. – bes. beim Compar. = noch, quid est, quod iam amplius exspectes? Cic.: hic iam plura non dicam, Cic. – c) bei Numeral. = gerade, sunt duo menses iam, Cic. – d) m. Partikeln: non iam, eben nicht, Cic.: ut iam = daß gerade, oder = wenn schon, wenn auch wirklich, od. = wie auch, Cic.: si iam, wenn gerade, wenn nun, Cic.: nunc iam = jetzt gerade, u. = schon jetzt, Cic.: tum iam, damals gerade, Cic.: iam ut m. Konj., gesetzt, daß nun wirklich od. gar (v. einem äußersten Falle), Caes. b. G. 3, 9, 6. Liv. 34, 32, 13. Sen. contr. 1, 2, 7.