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potestas

Μή, φίλα ψυχά, βίον ἀθάνατον σπεῦδε, τὰν δ' ἔμπρακτον ἄντλει μαχανάν -> Oh! my soul do not aspire to eternal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible
Pindar, Pythian, 3.61f.

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

pŏtestas: ātis (
I gen. plur. potestatium, Sen. Ep. 115, 7; Plin. 29, 4, 20, § 67), f. possum.
I Lit., in gen., ability, power of doing any thing (class.): SI FVRIOSVS EST AGNATORVM GENTILIVMQVE IN EO PECVNIAQVE EIVS POTESTAS ESTO, Fragm. XII. Tabularum: vim tantam in se et potestatem habere tantae astutiae, to have such a power of craftiness, to be able to devise such tricks, Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 32: aut potestas defuit aut facultas aut voluntas, Cic. Inv. 2, 7, 24: habere potestatem vitae necisque in aliquem, id. Dom. 29, 77; id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 3, § 11: potestatem alicui deferre beneficiorum tribuendorum, id. Balb. 16, 37. —Poet., with inf.: potestas occurrere telis ... ensem avellere dextrā, Stat. Th. 3, 296; Luc. 2, 40.—
   B In phrases.
   1    Esse in potestate alicujus, to be in one's power, under one's control, to be subject to (for a description of the relation of potestas under the Roman law, and of the classes of persons to whom it applied, v. Gai. Inst. 1, 49 sqq.): mittuntur legati, qui nuntient, ut sit in senatūs populique Romani potestate, Cic. Phil. 6, 2, 4: esse in dicione ac potestate alicujus, id. Quint. 2, 6: habere familiam in potestate, to keep them slaves, not to free them, Liv. 8, 15.—
   2    Esse in suā potestate, to be one's own master, Nep. Att. 6, 1; so, esse suae potestatis, Liv. 31, 45.—
   3    Jus potestatemque habere imperandi, Cic. Phil. 11, 12, 30; cf.: cum consulis eā de re jus ac potestatem esse dixisset, had jurisdiction and authority over it, Liv. 24, 39.—
   4    Est mea (tua, etc.) potestas, I have the power, I can, Cic. Att. 2, 5, 1; Ter. Heaut. 4, 3, 42; cf.: sed volui meam potestatem esse vel petendi, etc., Cic. Att. 4, 2, 6.—
II In partic.
   A Political power, dominion, rule, empire, sovereignty (syn.: imperium, dicio): Thessaliam in potestatem Thebanorum redigere, Nep. Pelop. 5, 1; Liv. 24, 31; so, sub potestatem Atheniensium redigere, Nep. Milt. 1, 4: esse in potestate alicujus, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 54, § 136: tenere aliquem in suā potestate ac dicione, id. ib. 2, 1, 38, § 97: venire in arbitrium ac potestatem alicujus, id. ib. 2, 1, 57, § 150.—
   B Magisterial power, authority, office, magistracy (syn.: magistratus, auctoritas): potestas praetoria, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 24, 69: qui togatus in re publicā cum potestate imperioque versatus sit, id. Phil. 1, 7, 18: modo ut bonā ratione emerit, nihil pro potestate, nihil ab invito, id. Verr. 2, 4, 5, § 10: cum potestate aut legatione in provinciam proficisci, id. ib. 2, 4, 5, § 9; id. Clu. 27, 74: censores dederunt operam, ut ita potestatem gererent, ut, etc., so to administer the office, id. Verr. 2, 2, 55, § 138; id. Agr. 2, 6, 14.—In plur.: imperia, potestates, legationes, id. Leg. 3, 3, 9: in potestatibus gerendis, Auct. Her. 3, 7, 14.—
   b Transf.
   (a)    A person in office, a public officer, magistrate: a magistratu aut ab aliquā potestate legitimā evocatus, by some lawful authority, Cic. Tusc. 1, 30, 74: mavis Fidenarum esse potestas, Juv. 10, 100.—
   (b)    A ruler, supreme monarch: hominum rerumque aeterna potestas, i. e. Jupiter, Verg. A. 10, 18: nihil est quod credere de se Non possit, cum laudatur dis aequa potestas, Juv. 4, 71 (v. context): potestates, = ἀρχαί, the highest magistrates, Plin. 9, 8, 8, § 26; Suet. Ner. 36; Amm. 31, 12, 5: celsae potestates, officers of state, id. 14, 1, 10: jurisdictionem potestatibus per provincias demandare, Suet. Claud. 23.—
   C Esp., legal power, right over or to a thing (class.): potestatis verbo plura significantur: in personā magistratuum imperium, in personā liberorum patria potestas, in personā servi dominium: at cum agimus de noxae deditione cum eo, qui servum non defendit, praesentis corporis copiam facultatemque significamus. Ex lege Atiniā in potestatem domini rem furtivam venisse videri, et si ejus vindicandae potestatem habuerit, Sabinus et Cassius aiunt, Dig. 50, 16, 215.—
   D Of inanimate things, power, force, efficacy, effect, operation, virtue, value: potestates colorum, Vitr. 7, 14: potestates visque herbarum, Verg. A. 12, 396; Plin. 25, 2, 5, § 9: pecuniarum, value, Dig. 13, 4, 3: haec potestatibus praesentibus dijudicanda sunt, circumstances, state of things, Gell. 1, 3, 24: actionum vis et potestas, Dig. 9, 4, 1: quaternarius numerus suis partibus complet decadis ipsius potestatem (because the first four integers, taken together, = 10), compass, fulness, Mart. Cap. 2, § 106: plumbi potestas, nature, quality, properties, Lucr. 5, 1242: naturalis, Vitr. 9, 4.—
   E Of a word, meaning, signification (syn.: vis, significatio), Gell. 10, 29, 1; Auct. Her. 4, 54, 67; Sen. Ben. 2, 34, 4.—
   F Math. t. t., = δύναμις, the square root, Mart. Cap. 2, § 106.—
III Trop.
   A Power, control, command (class.): dum ex tanto gaudio in potestatem nostram redeamus, recover our self-control, come to ourselves, Cato ap. Gell. 7, 3, 14: exisse ex potestate dicimus eos, qui effrenati feruntur aut libidine, aut iracundiā, to have lost the control of their reason, to be out of their minds, Cic. Tusc. 3, 5, 11; cf.: qui exisse ex potestate dicuntur, idcirco dicuntur, quia non sunt in potestate mentis, cui regnum totius animi a natura tributum est, id. ib. 3, 5, 11; cf. also id. ib. 4, 36, 77: postquam ad te cum omnium rerum tum etiam tui potestatem di transtulerint, Plin. Pan. 56, 3.—
   B Power, ability, possibility, opportunity (class.; cf.: copia, facultas): ubi mihi potestas primum evenit, Plaut. Cist. 1, 2, 18: liberius vivendi, Ter. And. 1, 1, 25: ut primum potestas data est augendae dignitatis tuae, Cic. Fam. 10, 13, 1: quoties mihi certorum hominum potestas erit (al. facultas), whenever I find men on whom I can rely, id. ib. 1, 7, 1: facere potestatem, to give opportunity, leave, permission: si quid de his rebus dicere vellet, feci potestatem, id. Cat. 3, 5, 11: quae potestas si mihi saepius fiet, utar, shall present itself, id. Phil. 1, 15, 38: alicui potestatem optionemque facere, ut, etc., id. Div. in Caecil. 14, 45: facio tibi interpellandi potestatem, id. Rosc. Am. 27, 73: ego instare, omnium mihi tabularum et litterarum fieri potestatem oportere, must be allowed the use of, id. Verr. 2, 4, 66, § 149: potestatem sui facere, to allow others to see or have access to one, to give an opportunity of conversing with one: cum neque praetores diebus aliquot adiri possent vel potestatem sui facerent, allowed themselves to be spoken to, id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, § 15: facere omnibus conveniendi sui potestatem, to admit to an audience, id. Phil. 8, 10, 31: qui potestatem sui non habuissent, who had not been able to speak with him, Suet. Tib. 34: potestatem sui facere, to give an opportunity of fighting with one, Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Nep. Ages. 3, 3.—Poet., with inf.: non fugis hinc praeceps, dum praecipitare potestas, Verg. A. 4, 565: nunc flere potestas est, Luc. 2, 40: soli cui tanta potestas meis occurrere telis, Stat. Th. 3, 296.—
In eccl. Lat.: potestates, angels, angelic powers, authorities in the spiritual world, Vulg. Ephes. 6, 12; id. 1 Pet. 3, 22; sing., id. 1 Cor. 15, 24.—
Personified, a daughter of Pallas and Styx, Hyg. Fab. prooem.

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

pŏtestās,⁶ ātis, f. (pot-, potis, pote),
1 [en gén.] puissance, pouvoir : a) alicujus, de qqn : esse in senatus potestate Cic. Phil. 6, 4, être soumis au pouvoir du sénat ; in dicione ac potestate alicujus esse Cic. Quinct. 6, être sous la domination et la puissance de qqn ; tua potestas erat, ne Cic. Cæcil. 32, tu avais le pouvoir d’empêcher que ; non est in nostra potestate, quin Cic. Fato 45, nous ne pouvons empêcher que || in potestatem alicujus esse Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 67, être au pouvoir de qqn, cf. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 98 ; Pomp. 33 (d’après Gell. 1, 7, 16 ) ; Liv. 2, 14, 4 ; 24, 1, 13 ; 32, 8, 14 ; in potestatem aliquem habere Sall. J. 112, 3, avoir qqn en son pouvoir || per potestatem aliquid auferre Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 32, emporter qqch. en usant de son pouvoir ; alicui liberam potestatem ad credendum dare Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 178, donner à qqn libre pouvoir d’ajouter foi ; b) alicujus rei, pouvoir sur qqch. : vitæ necisque potestatem in aliquem habere Cic. Rep. 3, 23, avoir droit de vie et de mort sur qqn, cf. Cæs. G. 6, 19, 3 ; potestatem alicui deferre beneficiorum tribuendorum Cic. Balbo 37, remettre à qqn le pouvoir d’accorder des faveurs ; esse in potestate mentis Cic. Tusc. 3, 11, être en possession de son intelligence ; ex potestate, de potestate exire Cic. Tusc. 3, 11 ; 3, 77, n’être plus maître de soi, perdre la raison || nihil in aliqua re potestatis habere Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 75, n’avoir aucun pouvoir sur qqch. ; c) pouvoir, propriété (vertu) d’une chose : potestates herbarum Virg. En. 12, 396, les vertus des plantes || signification, valeur d’un mot : Her. 4, 67 ; Sen. Ben. 2, 34, 4 ; Gell. 10, 29, 1 || [phil. c. δύναμις propriété, faculté particulière d’une substance ou d’un être, ou ensemble de leurs propriétés ou facultés caractéristiques : Lucr. 2, 587 ; 2, 257 ; 2, 286 ; 3, 409 ; 1, 76 ; 1, 595 ; 3, 264, etc.
2 pouvoir d’un magistrat [et en part. des magistratures inférieures, opp. à imperium ] : potestas prætoria Cic. Pomp. 69, le pouvoir d’un préteur ; cum potestate in provinciam proficisci Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 9, partir dans une province avec la puissance officielle ; sacrosancta Liv. 29, 20, 11, la puissance inviolable [tribuns de la plèbe et édiles plébéiens] ; censores potestatem ita gesserunt, ut Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 138, les censeurs ont exercé leurs pouvoirs, leurs fonctions de telle sorte que... ; in potestatibus eo modo agitabat ut... Sall. J. 63, 5, dans ses différentes fonctions il se comportait de telle sorte que... || a magistratu aut ab aliqua potestate legitima evocatus Cic. Tusc. 1, 74, appelé au dehors par un magistrat ou par quelque autre puissance légitime ; imperia, potestates Cic. Leg. 3, 9, les commandants militaires, les autorités civiles [gouverneurs de province], cf. Phil. 2, 53 ; Suet. Claud. 23
3 pouvoir, faculté, possibilité, occasion de faire qqch. : mihi data est potestas augendæ dignitatis tuæ Cic. Fam. 10, 13, 1, la possibilité m’a été donnée d’augmenter ta considération ; potestatem gustandi facere Cic. Rep. 2, 50, donner le pouvoir de goûter, cf. Cic. Amer. 73 ; Cat. 3, 11 ; mihi tabularum potestas facta est Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 149, les registres ont été mis à ma disposition ; ei potestas non defuit Cæs. G. 1, 48, 3, la possibilité ne lui manqua pas, cf. Cæs. G. 5, 51, 3 ; potestatem sui facere Cæs. G. 1, 40, 8 ; Nep. Ages. 3, 6, donner la disposition de soi, accepter le combat, [mais Cic. Q. 1, 2, 15, donner audience] || potestas est avec inf., il est possible de : Virg. En. 4, 565 ; 9, 739 ; vobis potestas fit ostendere... Liv. 34, 13, 5, vous avez tout pouvoir de montrer... gén. pl. potestatum ; qqf. -tium Sen. Ep. 115, 7 ; Plin. 28, 59 ; 29, 67.

Latin > German (Georges)

potestās, ātis, f. (possum), das Vermögen, I) im allg., die Kraft, Wirkung, der Wert, die Geltung, Bedeutung, plumbi, Lucr.: potestates herbarum, Verg. u. Plin.: potestates colorum, Vitr.: pecuniarum, ICt. – v. Abstr., utraque actio eiusdem potestatis, ICt.: quarum actionum vis et p. (Wirkung) haec est, ut etc., ICt.: u. so v. der Geltung, dem Umfang, der Bedeutung eines Wortes, Cornif. rhet. 4, 67. Sen. de ben. 2, 34, 5. Gell. 10, 29, 1. – meton. als t. t. der Mathematik = δύναμις, die Quadratwurzel, Mart. Cap. 2. § 106 (u. dazu Kopp). – II) prägn., die Macht, etw. zu tun, die Gewalt zu od. über etw., die Obmacht, A) subjektiv: 1) im allg.: qui habeam tantam potestatem astutiae, solche List ausdenken kann, Ter.: habere potestatem vitae necisque in alqm, Cic. u. Caes., in alqo, Cic. de dom. 77: magnas vitae et necis habere potestates, Firm.: pari potestate, mit gleicher Gewalt, Liv.: esse in sua potestate, sein eigener Herr sein, Nep.: mihi est potestas od. est in mea potestate, es steht in meiner Macht, ich kann, Cic.: quasi non ea potestas sit tua (es nicht in deiner Macht stehe), quo velis in tempore ut te exsolvas, Ter. heaut. 720: u. so tamen, ne qua deductio fieret, magna ex parte tua potestas erat, Cic. div. in Caecil. 32: non esse in nostra potestate, quin illa eveniant, Cic. de fato 45: in tua potestate est, an gaudeamus, Plin. pan. 73, 3: quotiescumque ei locus dicendi ac potestas fuit, die Gelegenheit u. die Freiheit, sich auszusprechen, Cic.: u. est alci potestas m. Infin., soli cui tanta potestas divorumque hominumque meis occurrere telis impune, Stat. Theb. 3, 296: iam istam volucrum fore potestatem, werde bei den Vögeln stehen, Suet.: esse in potestate senatus, sich der Verfügung des Senates unterwerfen, Cic. u. Liv.: habere familiam in sua potestate, die Sklaven in seiner Macht behalten, nicht freilassen, Liv.: in potestate mentis esse, seines Verstandes mächtig sein, Cic.: exisse ex od. de potestate (sc. mentis), seines Verstandes nicht mächtig sein, Cic. – 2) insbes.: a) die politische Macht, Gewalt, Herrschaft, Obmacht, alqm (ein Land, Volk) redigere in potestatem alcis od. suam, Nep. u. Liv., u. sub potestatem alcis, Nep.: in potestatem alcis venire, Eutr.: esse in alcis dicione ac potestate, Cic.: tenere alqm in sua potestate ac dicione, Cic. – b) die obrigkeitl. Gewalt, Gewalthaberstelle, das obrigkeitl. Amt, α) eig.: praetoria, Cic.: dare alci potestatem legati, Cic.: severe praefuit ei potestati, Nep.: censores potestatem gererent, Cic.: potestates magistratuum, Cic.: dissimilitudo potestatum, Cic. – β) meton., die Person, die dieses Amt verwaltet, der Gewalthaber (Machthaber), die Behörde, a magistratu aut ab aliqua potestate... evocatus, Cic.: inconsultā superiore potestate, Amm.: dah. hominum divûmque potestas (von Jupiter), Machthaber, König, Verg. – Plur. (wie ἀρχαί), Machthaber, höhere Staatsbeamte, Plin. 9, 26 u. 29, 66. Suet. Claud. 23, 1: summae potestates, die höchsten Machthaber, Suet. Ner. 36, 1: imperia et potestates, Militär- u. Zivilbehörden, Cic. Phil. 2, 53 u. de legg. 3, 9. – B) objektiv = die Macht, Erlaubnis, Gelegenheit, Möglichkeit, data est potestas augendae dignitatis, Cic.: quoties mihi certorum hominum potestas erit, Gelegenheit, zuverlässige Leute zu haben (finden), um einen Brief mitzugeben, Cic.: liberius vivendi fuit ei potestas, er durfte, konnte freier leben, Ter.: hominis aspiciendi potestatem eripere, Cic. – dare alci potestatem, Acc. fr. u. Cic.: alci potestatem dare inquirendi sui parentis, Pacuv. fr.: equis datā respirandi potestate, Iustin.: eorum opprimendorum incredibilem rei publicae potestatem et fortunam (günstigen Augenblick) dare, Cic. – facere sui potestatem alci, α) sich beikommen lassen, sich in ein Gefecht einlassen, Caes. u. Nep. β) mit sich reden lassen, andere vor sich lassen, Cic.: so auch sui conveniendi, Cic. – potestatem sui non habuissent, mit ihm nicht hätten reden können, Suet.: ebenso potestatem sui praebere, Audienz geben, Cic. – facere alci potestatem interpellandi, Macht, Erlaubnis geben, Cic.: senatus populi potestatem fecit, stellte es in die Gewalt des Volkes, Liv.: fit mihi potestas tabularum, ich darf Gebrauch machen von usw., Cic. – potestas est (es ist möglich, es ist vergönnt) m. Infin., non fugis hinc praeceps, dum praecipitare potestas? Verg. Aen. 4, 565; u. so Verg. Aen. 9, 739. Lucan. 2, 40: u. alci potestas fit (es wird jmdm. Gelegenheit gegeben) m. Infin., tempus, quod saepe optastis, venit, quo vobis potestas fieret virtutem vestram ostendendi, Liv. 34, 13, 5: ebenso datur potestas m. Infin., ubi nulla datur dextrā affectare potestas, keine günstige Gelegenheit sich findet, an die Fliehenden zu gelangen, Verg. Aen. 3, 670. – / Genet. Plur. gew. potestatum; doch auch potestatium, Sen. ep. 115, 7. Plin. 28, 59 u. 29, 67. Corp. inscr. Lat. 6, 632.

Latin > English

potestas potestatis N F :: power, rule, force; strength, ability; chance, opportunity