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dubius

Μή, φίλα ψυχά, βίον ἀθάνατον σπεῦδε, τὰν δ' ἔμπρακτον ἄντλει μαχανάν -> Oh! my soul do not aspire to eternal life, but exhaust the limits of the possible
Pindar, Pythian, 3.61f.

Latin > English (Lewis & Short)

dŭbĭus: a, um, adj. for duhibius, duohabeo, held as two or double, i. e. doubtful; cf. dubito, Corss. Ausspr. 2, 1027.
I Moving in two directions alternately, vibrating to and fro, fluctuating (cf. ambiguus, anceps, incertus, perplexus, duplex).
   A Lit. (very rare): ut vas non quit constare, nisi humor Destitit in dubio fluctu jactarier intus, Lucr. 6, 556; cf.: fluctibus dubiis volvi coeptum est mare, Liv. 37, 16, 4.—Far more freq. and class.,
   B Trop., vacillating in mind, uncertain.
   1    Act.
   a Wavering in opinion, doubting, doubtful, dubious, uncertain, = ambigens, haesitans, etc.: sin est is homo, anni multi me dubiam dant, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 17: quae res est, quae cujusquam animum in hac causa dubium facere possit? Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 10.— With an interrog. clause, A. and S. Gr. § 213 R. 4 (1.): temptat dubiam mentem rationis egestas, ecquae nam fuerit mundi genitalis origo, Lucr. 5, 1211; cf.: equites procul visi ab dubiis, quinam essent, Liv. 4, 40: dubius sum, quid faciam, Hor. S. 1, 9, 40: dubius, unde rumperet silentium, id. Epod. 5, 85: spemque metumque inter dubii, seu vivere credant, Sive extrema pati, Verg. A. 1, 218; cf. Liv. 1, 42: Philippus non dubius, quin, etc., id. 31, 42: haud dubius quin, id. 42, 14; Curt. 5, 12.—With acc. and inf.: dictator minime dubius, bellum cum his populis Patres jussuros, Liv. 6, 14; so, haud dubius, id. 31, 24; Curt. 9, 7: nec sum animi dubius, verbis ea vincere magnum Quam sit, well aware how hard it is, Verg. G. 3, 289; so, dubius with the genitives animi, Auct. B. Alex. 56, 2: mentis, Ov. F. 6, 572: consilii, Just. 2, 13: sententiae, Liv. 33, 25 Drak.: salutis, Ov. M. 15, 438: vitae, id. Tr. 3, 3, 25: fati, Luc. 7, 611 al.; cf. Zumpt, Gr. § 437; A. and S. Gr. § 213 R. 1 (a.).—
   b Wavering in resolution, irresolute, undecided (very rare): dubio atque haesitante Jugurtha incolumes transeunt, Sall. J. 107, 6; cf. hostes (opp. firmi), id. ib. 51 fin.: nutantes ac dubiae civitates, Suet. Caes. 4 fin.: quid faciat dubius, Ov. M. 8, 441.—Poet. transf.: cuspis, Sil. 4, 188.—
   2    Pass., that is doubted of, uncertain, doubtful, dubious, undetermined (so most freq. in all periods and kinds of composition): videsne igitur, quae dubia sint, ea sumi pro certis atque concessis? Cic. Div. 2, 51, 106; cf. id. ib. 2, 50 fin.; id. Fin. 4, 24, 67; id. de Or. 1, 20, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; Quint. 3, 4, 8; 7, 8, 6: nihil aegrius est quam res secernere apertas Ab dubiis, Lucr. 4, 468 (cf. verba, vague language, opp. aperta, Quint. 7, 2, 48): jus, opp. certum, id. 12, 3, 6; opp. confessum, id. 7, 7, 7: in regno, ubi ne obscura quidem est aut dubia servitus, Cic. Rep. 1, 31: dubium vel anceps genus causarum, Quint. 4, 1, 40; cf. id. 9, 2, 69: dubii variique casus, Auct. ap. Cic. Clu. 21, 58: et incerta societas, Suet. Aug. 17 et saep.: quia sciebam dubiam esse fortunam scenicam, Ter. Hec. prol. alt. 8: salus (opp. aperta pernicies), Cic. N. D. 3, 27, 69: spes pacis, id. Att. 8, 13: victoria, Caes. B. G. 7, 80, 6; cf.: victoria, praeda, laus, Sall. J. 85, 48: Marte, Vell. 2, 55, 3: spes armorum, id. 2, 71: discrimen pugnae, indecisive, Sil. 5, 519: proelia, Tac. G. 6: auctor, unknown, Ov. M. 12, 61 et saep.: an auspicia repetenda, ne quid dubiis diis agerem? i. e. unassured of their favor, Liv. 8, 32: dubii socii suspensaeque ex fortuna fidei (opp. fideles socii and certi hostes), id. 44, 18; cf. Caes. B. C. 1, 3, 5: Hispaniae, Tac. A. 3, 44; cf.: gens dubiae ad id voluntatis, Liv. 9, 15: lux, i. e. morning twilight, dawn, Ov. M. 11, 596: sidera, Juv. 5, 22; cf. nox, evening twilight, Ov. M. 4, 401: caelum, i. e. over cast, Verg. G. 1, 252: fulgor solis, Sen. Herc. Fur. 670; cf.: et quasi languidus dies, Plin. Ep. 6, 20, 6: dubiāque tegens lanugine malas, i. e. between down and a beard, Ov. M. 9, 398; 13, 754; cf.: dubia lanuginis umbra, Claud. Epith. Pall. et Cel. 42: vina, not sure to ripen, Plin. 18, 31, 74, § 319: consilia, wavering, Tac. Agr. 18 et saep.: hunc annum sequitur annus haud dubiis consulibus (shortly thereafter the contrary: Papirius Semproniusque, quorum de consulatu dubitabatur), Liv. 4, 8; so, haud dubius praetor, id. 39, 39 fin.: haud dubii hostes, open enemies, id. 37, 49: haud dubii Galli (opp. degeneres, mixti, Gallograeci vere), id. 38, 17: cena dubia, see below, II.—
   b In the neutr. absol.
   (a)    (Non, haud) dubium est, it is (not, not at all) doubtful, uncertain, undecided. (αα) Absol.: si quid erit dubium, Plaut. Ep. 5, 1, 40: haud dubium id quidem est, id. Poen. 3, 4, 27; Ter. And. 2, 3, 25; cf. in the interrog.: o! dubiumne id est? Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 49; id. Heaut. 3, 3, 46; id. Phorm. 5, 2, 9; and with the dat.: an dubium id tibi est? Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 38; Cic. Fam. 4, 15.—(ββ) With de: de Pompeii exitu mihi dubium numquam fuit, Cic. Att. 11, 6, 5; so, de eorum jure, id. de Or. 1, 57: de re, Quint. 7, 3, 4; cf. id. 7, 6, 3.—(γγ) With an interrog. clause: illud dubium (est), ad id, quod summum bonum dicitis, ecquaenam fieri possit accessio, Cic. Fin. 4, 24, 67; cf. Quint. 7, 9, 12: hoc ergo, credo, dubium est, uter nostrum sit verecundior, Cic. Ac. 2, 41, 126: hoc enim dubium est, utrum ... an, Quint. 6, 3, 83: Ambiorix copias suas judicione non conduxerit ... an tempore exclusus, dubium est, Caes. B. G. 6, 31, 1: an dubium vobis fuit inesse vis aliqua videretur necne? Cic. Caecin. 11, 31 et saep.—Since the Aug. per. freq. dubium, absol. and adv.: codicilli, dubium ad quem scripti, Quint. 7, 2, 52: quo postquam dubium pius an sceleratus, Orestes venerat, Ov. Tr. 4, 4, 69; Suet. Caes. 58; id. Aug. 28; id. Tib. 10; Flor. 1, 1, 12; 2, 14, 3: Erechtheus, Justitiā dubium validisne potentior armis, Ov. M. 6, 678; cf. id. Pont. 3, 1, 17: neque multo post exstincto Maximo, dubium an quaesita morte, Tac. A. 1, 5; Flor. 1, 1, 8; 4, 2, 91 al.—(δδ) Non dubium est quin uxorem nolit filius, Ter. And. 1, 2, 1; id. Eun. 5, 6, 27; Cic. de Or. 2, 8, 32; id. Att. 13, 45; Quint. 11, 2, 10 et saep.: haud dubium est, quin, Ter. And. 2, 3, 17; 3, 2, 50; id. Ad. 5, 9, 19; and interrog., Quint. 3, 2, 1; 10, 1, 5. —(εε) With acc. and inf.: periisso me una haud dubium est, Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 46; so Liv. 38, 6; Suet. Caes. 52 fin.; cf. interrog.: an dubium tibi est, eam esse hanc? Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 9.—Ellipt.: si exploratum tibi sit posse te, etc., non esse cunctandum: si dubium sit, non esse conandum, Cic. Fam. 1, 7, 5.—
   (b)    Dubium habere, to regard as uncertain, to doubt: an tu dubium habebis, etiam sancte quom jurem tibi? Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 112: an dubium habetis, num obficere quid vobis possit? etc., Sall. H. Fragm. III. 61, 8 Dietsch; cf.: haec habere dubia, neque, etc., Cic. Ac. 2, 9 fin. —
   (g)    In dubium: in dubium vocare, to call in question, Cic. de Or. 2, 34; cf.: illud me dixisse nemo vocabit in dubium, Asin. Pollio ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 31, 5. Vid. also under 3. b.: venire in dubium, Cic. Quint. 2; id. ib. 21, 67; Liv. 3, 13; cf.: alii non veniunt in dubium de voluntate, i. e. there is no doubt what their wish is, Cic. Att. 11, 15, 2. Vid. also under 3. b.—
   (d)    In dubio, in doubt, in question, undetermined: dum in dubio est animus, Ter. And. 1, 5, 31; cf. Luc. 7, 247: in dubioque fuere utrorum ad regna cadendum esset, etc., Lucr. 3, 836; cf. id. 1085; Quint. 7, 9, 9: aestate potius quam hieme dandum, non est in dubio, Plin. 25, 5, 24, § 59 et saep.: ut in dubio poneret, utrum ... an, etc., Liv. 34, 5. Vid. also 3. b.—(ε) Sine dubio, without doubt, doubtless, indisputably, certainly (very freq.; in Cic. more than twenty times; not in Caes. and Sall.): Th. Numquid dubitas quin? etc. Gn. Sine dubio, opinor, Ter. Eun. 5, 9, 14; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 2; 47; id. Cat. 2, 1; id. Balb. 24, 55; id. Tusc. 2, 7, 18; id. Off. 1, 29, 102; id. N. D. 1, 9, 23; id. Att. 1, 19, 2 et saep. Vid. the passages in Stuerenb. Cic. Off. p. 134 sq. Sometimes, esp. in Quint., with adversative particles: sed, verum, at, etc., no doubt, doubtless ... but, yet, etc.: cum te togatis omnibus sine dubio anteferret ... sed, etc.. Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 58; so with sed, id. de Or, 3, 57; Quint. 1, 6, 38; 5, 10, 53; 6, 3, 64; with sed tamen, id. 12, 6, 7; with tamen, id. 3, 8, 21; 5, 7, 28; 6, 4, 12; with verum, id. 8 prooem. § 33; with at, id. 8, 3, 67; with autem, id. 1, 6, 12 Spald.—(ζ) Procul dubio, beyond question, undoubtedly (very rare), Lucr. 3, 638; Liv. 39, 40 fin.; Plin. 18, 21, 50, § 187; and: dubio procul, Lucr. 1, 812; 2, 261.—
   3    Meton., like anceps (4), doubtful, dubious, i. e. precarious, dangerous, critical, difficult (freq. but mostly poet.): res dubias, egenas, inopiosas consili, critical condition, Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 2; so, res, id. Capt. 2, 3, 46; id. Most. 5, 1, 1; Sall. C. 10, 2; 39, 3; id. J. 14, 5; Liv. 2, 50 fin.; Tac. A. 2, 62; Verg. A. 6, 196; 11, 445 al.; cf. pericla (with advorsae res), Lucr. 3, 55; 1076: tempora (opp. secunda), Hor. C. 4, 9, 36: mons erat ascensu dubius, Prop. 4, 4, 83; cf.: quae (loca) dubia nisu videbantur, Sall. J. 94, 2.—
   b In the neutr. absol. (i. q. discrimen, II. B. 2, and periculum): mea quidem hercle certe in dubio vita est, is in danger, Ter. And. 2, 2, 10 Ruhnk.; Sall. C. 52, 6; cf. Ov. Am. 2, 13, 2: sese suas exercitusque fortunas in dubium non devocaturum, Caes. B. G. 6, 7, 6; cf. Cic. Caecin. 27, 76: tua fama et gnatae vita in dubium veniet, Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 42; cf. id. ib. 2, 2, 35; Ov. H. 16, 138 Loers.— Plur. as subst.: hinc Italae gentes in dubiis responsa petunt, Verg. A. 7, 86: mens dubiis percussa pavet, Luc. 6, 596.
II For the syn. varius, manifold, various (only in the foll. passages): o multimodis variūm et dubiūm et prosperūm copem diem, Pac. ap. Non. 84, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 115, ed. Rib.). And so prob. is to be explained dubia cena, a multifarious, richly provided supper, Ter. Ph. 2, 2, 28 (for the subjoined explanation of Terence: ubi tu dubites, quid sumas potissimum, is only outwardly adapted to the meaning of dubius); so, dubia cena, Hor. S. 2, 2, 77; and: fercula dubiae cenae, Aus. Mos. 102; Hier. Ep. 22, no. 16.—Hence, adv., in two forms.
   (a)    dŭbĭe (acc. to I. B. 1.), doubtfully, dubiously (not in Plaut., Ter., or Caes.): potest accidere, ut aliquod signum dubie datum pro certo sit acceptum, Cic. Div. 1, 55.—Esp. freq. (particularly since the Aug. per.) with negatives: haud (rarely non) dubie, undoubtedly, indisputably, positively, certainly: etsi non dubie mihi nuntiabatur Parthos transisse Euphratem, tamen, etc., Cic. Fam. 15, 1 (nowhere else as an adv. in Cic.): non dubie, Quint. 7, 2, 6; 9, 4, 67; Front. Strat. 2, 3, 16; and with sed (cf. dubius, I. B. 2. b. ε), Quint. 11, 2, 1; so, too, nec dubie, Liv. 2, 23 fin.; Quint. 2, 14, 2; and with verum, id. 3, 4, 1; with sed, Tac. A. 4, 19 fin.: haud dubie jam victor, Sall. J. 102, 1 (cf. on the contrary in Cic.: sine ulla dubitatione hostis, Phil. 14, 4, 10; cf. Liv. 3, 38; Cic. Cat. 4, 3, 5); so, haud dubie, Liv. 1, 9; 13; 3, 24; 38; 53; 4, 2; 23; 5, 10 fin.; 33 fin.; 49 fin. et saep. (about 70 times; see the passages in Stuerenb. Cic. Off. p. 138); Quint. 10, 1, 85; Tac. A. 2, 43; 88; id. H. 1, 7; 46; 72; 3, 86; 4, 27 fin.; 80; id. G. 28; Suet. Caes. 55; id. Calig. 9; id. Galb. 2; Vulg. Lev. 13, 43.—
   (b)    dubio = dubie, App. M. 9, 2.

Latin > French (Gaffiot)

dŭbĭus,⁷ a, um (duo),
1 balançant d’un côté et d’un autre, incertain, indécis, hésitant : spem metumque inter dubii Virg. En. 1, 218, partagés entre la crainte et l’espérance ; alicujus animum dubium facere Cic. Pomp. 27, rendre qqn hésitant, incertain || [avec gén.] : sententiæ Liv. 33, 25, 5, incertain du parti à prendre ( Just. 2, 13, 1 ); [à distinguer de dubius animi B. Alex. 56, 2 ; mentis Ov. F. 6, 572, ayant l’esprit indécis] || [avec interr. ind.] : dubius sum quid faciam Hor. S. 1, 9, 40, j’hésite sur le parti à prendre, cf. Sall. J. 49, 5 ; Liv. 4, 40, 2
2 [tour négatif] haud (non) dubius, ne doutant pas que, [avec prop. inf.] Liv. 5, 38, 4 ; 6, 14, 1 ; 31, 24, 2 ; [avec quin subj.] Liv. 25, 24, 8 ; 31, 42, 7, etc.
3 [en parlant de choses] douteux, incertain : pl. n., dubia Cic. Div. 2, 106, les choses douteuses ; quod est dubium Cic. Mur. 68, ce qui est douteux ; dubia salus Cic. Nat. 3, 69, salut chanceux ; dubia victoria Cæs. G. 7, 80, victoire incertaine, indécise || dubium cælum Virg. G. 1, 252, le ciel incertain, qui ne livre pas ses secrets ; dubia cena Ter. Phorm. 342, un repas qui met dans l’embarras du choix || de aliqua re dubium non est Cic. de Or. 1, 241, il n’y a pas de doute sur une chose ; de Pompei exitu mihi dubium numquam fuit Cic. Att. 11, 6, 5, je n’ai jamais eu de doute sur la mort de Pompée || dubium est avec interr. ind. : dubium est uter nostrum sit... Cic. Ac. 2, 126, il y a doute sur le point de savoir qui de nous deux est... ; nobis fuit dubium, quid ageremus Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 138, nous avons hésité sur la conduite à tenir ; copias judicione non conduxerit... an tempore exclusus, dubium est Cæs. G. 6, 31, 1, est-ce de propos délibéré qu’il ne rallia pas ses troupes ou est-ce par manque de temps ? on ne sait || non dubium est quin subj., il n’est pas douteux que : Cic. de Or. 2, 32 ; Att. 13, 45, 1 || non dubium est avec prop. inf., il n’est pas douteux que : Ter. Hec. 326 ; Liv. 38, 6, 7 ; Plin. Min. Ep. 8, 14, 20 ; Pan. 61, 6
4 douteux, critique, dangereux : tempora dubia Hor. O. 4, 9, 36, circonstances critiques ; pl. n., dubia nisu Sall. J. 94, 2, endroits difficiles à escalader, cf. Prop. 4, 4, 83 ; in dubiis Virg. En. 7, 86, dans les moments critiques.

Latin > German (Georges)

dubius, a, um (duo), zwischen zweien-, nach zwei Seiten hin schwankend, I) subjektiv: A) in der Überzeugung = ungewiß, zweifelhaft, zweifelnd, in Zweifel stehend, Plaut., Cic. u.a.: spemque metumque inter dubii, zwischen H.u.F. schwebend, Verg. – m. Genet. (s. Drak. Liv. 33, 25, 5), animi, Verg. u.a., mentis, Ov.: portus ac praesidii, Sen.: viae, Sen.: sententiae, Liv., consilii, Iustin.: fati, Lucan. 7, 611: vitae, Marc. Emp.: salutis, Ov. – haud dubius m. folg. Acc. u. Infin., haud dubius facilem in aequo campi tantum superanti multitudine victoriam fore, Liv. 5, 38, 4. – haud dubius m. folg. quin, haud dubius, quin paucos transgressos murum expulsurus foret, Liv. 25, 24, 8. – B) im Entschlusse = schwankend, unschlüssig, unentschlossen (Ggstz. firmus), Sall. u.a.: m. folg. indir. Fragesatz, dubius unde rumperet silentium, Hor. epod. 5, 85: dubius sum, quid faciam, Hor. sat. 1, 9, 40: dubius, an transiret, Liv. 8, 24, 11. – poet. übtr., v. Lebl., cuspis, Sil.: arcus, Val. Flacc. (vgl. Drak. Sil. 4, 188). – II) objektiv: A) woran od. wobei man ungewiß od. unschlüssig ist = ungewiß, unsicher, zweifelhaft, unbestimmt, unentschieden (Ggstz. apertus, certus, confessus u. dgl.), a) im allg.: genus causae, Cic.: ius, Quint.: victoria, Caes.: auctor, Ov.: socii, Liv.: verbum aliquod dubiae significationis, Sen.: dubiae crepuscula lucis, die D. des Zwielichts, Morgendämmerung, Ov.: u. so adhuc dubius dies, Zwielicht, Dämmerung (des Morgens), Plin. ep.: u. adhuc dubiā luce, Lact.: u. dubia sidera, Iuven.: nox, Abendzwielicht, Abenddämmerung, Ov.: caelum, trübe, Ov.: lanugo, zweifelhaft, ob noch Flaum od. schon Bart, Ov. – consilia, unbestimmtes Vorhaben, Tac.: sequitur annus haud dubiis consulibus, ein J., das entschieden K. hatte, Liv.: ut haud dubius (unzweifelhaft) praetor esset, si etc., Liv. – an dubium est, ut dare posset imperium imperator, qui etc., Plin. pan. 8, 6. – non est dubium, quin (daß usw.) od. quin non (daß nicht), Ter., Cic. u. Gell.: quasi viro dubium sit, quin etc., Cic.: dubiumne est od. cui dubium est, quin etc.? Cic. – etenim quam dubium est, an merito accusetur, qui etc., Plin. ep. 7, 10, 3. – num od. nemini dubium est m. folg. Acc. u. Infin., Cic. Flacc. 83. Plin. ep. 8, 14, 20. Plin. pan. 61, 6. – haud dubio, da es nicht zweifelhaft war, Liv. – neutr. subst. (gew. nur mit Praep.), nihil est dubii (es ist kein Zweifel) m. folg. quin u. Konj., Sen. de ben. 6, 31, 2: in dubium vocare od. revocare, in Zweifel ziehen, -setzen, zweifelhaft machen, Cic.: in dubio est animus, Ter.: fides tua venit mihi in dubium, Cic.: sine dubio, Cic., od. procul dubio, Liv., od. dubio procul, Gell. 2, 29, 15, od. (spätlat.) absque dubio, Salv., ohne Zweifel: haudi pro dubio (unzweifelhaft) Sextium consulem esse, Liv.: u. so pro haud dubio habitum est mit folg. Infin., Liv. – poet., dubium (= de quo dubium erat) iustitiā validisne potentior armis, Ov.: dubium pius an sceleratus Orestes, Ov.; vgl. Bach Ov. met. 6, 678. – b) prägn., dubia cena, eine solche Mahlzeit, bei der wegen des Überflusses an Speisen die Wahl schwer fällt, ein reiches, mit den verschiedensten Speisen versehenes Mahl, ein »verwirrendes Speisengewühl« (Voß), Ter. Phorm. 342 u. (nach Terenz) Hor. sat. 2, 2, 77. Auson. Mos. 102. – B) meton. (wie anceps no. II, 3) = bedenklich, gefährlich, mißlich, a) der örtlichen Beschaffenheit nach, mons erat ascensu dubius, Prop.: quae (loca) dubia nisu videbantur, Sall. – b) dem Ausgange nach, res d. (Lage), Plaut., Sall. u.a.: tempora d. (Ggstz. t. secunda), Hor. – neutr. subst. α) Sing. m. Praep., in dubium devocare, in eine mißliche Lage-, aufs Spiel setzen, Caes.: in dubium venire, in Gefahr kommen, Ter.: u. so in dubium futurum esse, Ov.: in dubio esse, in Gefahr schweben, auf dem Spiele stehen, Ter. u.a. – β) Plur., mens dubiis percussa, Lucan. 6, 596. – c) poet. übtr., in bedenklicher-, mißlicher Lage befindlich, in Gefahr schwebend, aeger, der bedenkliche Kranke, Ov.: caput, Val. Flacc. – / Compar. dubior, Anthol. Lat. 659, 4 R.

Latin > English

dubius dubia, dubium ADJ :: doubtful, dubious, uncertain; variable, dangerous; critical